Chippewa Indians

From Ohio History Central
Po-Go-Nay-Ke-Shick (Hole in the Day).jpg
Po-Go-Nay-Ke-Shick (Hole in the Day), the celebrated Chippewa chief, ca. 1880-1889.

See also: Obijwa Indians

The Ojibwa or Anishnaabe people(once known as the "Chippewa") are an American Indian group who historically lived in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Ontario, Canada -- largely around the region of Lake Superior. The Anishnaabe people speak an Algonquian language. The Objiwa were closely related to the Ottawa, Potawatomi, and other Algonquian-speaking peoples.

The Ojibwa participated in the fur trade with French merchants. French fur traders frequently intermarried with the Ojibwa. Obijwa forces fought with the French against the British in the French and Indian War. Following France's defeat, the Ojibwa assisted Pontiac in Pontiac's Rebellion. Pontiac was a chief of the Ottawa, but his mother was Ojibwe. During the American Revolution, the Ojibwa allied themselves with the British. They feared white Americans would continue to swarm over traditional Ojibwa lands if they did not go in with the British.

General Anthony Wayne defeated the Ojibwa, who fought alongside other American Indians of the Ohio Country, at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Under the terms of subsequent treaties, the Ojibwa were made to give up their claim to lands in Ohio -- such treaties included the Treaty of Fort Harmar (1789), the Treaty of Greenville (1795), the Treaty of Fort Industry (1805), and the Treaty of the Maumee Rapids (1817). Despite a strong removal policy towards most American Indian groups East of the Mississippi, the United States government did not force a majority of the Ojibwa off of their land. Rather, the Ojibwa lost some of their territory in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota. They later regained some of this Midwestern territory as reservations. <p>Historically, the Ojibwa nation was considered to contain fifteen discreet bands. Today, the Ojibwa nation is represented by numerous federally-recognized tribes across the U.S. and Canada. In 2005, approximately 176,000 Ojibwa resided in North America.

See Also


  1. Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.