Middle Woodland Period
Painting from the Ancient Ohio art series depicting Middle Woodland/Hopewell (100 BC - AD 500) shaman ministering to an ill clan member near the Stubbs Earthworks in southwestern Ohio.
100 B.C. to A.D. 500
The Middle Woodland Period is characterized by the elaboration and intensification of developments that began in the Early Woodland and Late Archaic periods. Hunting wild animals, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods continued to provide the bulk of the food, but the cultivation of squash, sunflower, and a variety of other local plants became increasingly important. Ceremonial earthworks built during this period generally were larger and more varied in shape. Finally, Middle Woodland artisans used a greater variety of exotic raw materials to create their masterpieces. In addition to copper, mined in the upper Great Lakes region, they brought in large quantities of mica from the southern Appalachian Mountains, shells from the Gulf of Mexico, and obsidian from the Rocky Mountains.In central and southern Ohio, the Hopewell culture predominated, while in parts of eastern Ohio, the Adena culture continued to thrive for centuries.
- Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.
- Pangea Productions. Searching for the Great Hopewell Road. N.p.: Pangea Productions, 1998.