From Ohio History Central
8000 B.C. to 7000 B.C.
The Plano culture of pre-contact American Indian people followed the Clovis culture from around 8000 to 7000 B.C. Following the extinction of Ice Age big game animals, the Paleoindians had to change their way of life. They continued to hunt animals, but they focused on bison on the Plains and deer and elk in the eastern forests. The hallmark of the Plano culture is a variety of new kinds of spear points. Plano spear points are different from Clovis points in that they lack the groove, or flute, that characterizes Clovis points. The designation "Plano Culture", like Clovis Culture, is an archaeological convenience term meant to designate a specific period of cultural and technological activity amongst pre-contact American Indian peoples on the North American continent; the designation does not refer to a particular group of people.
- Frison, George, Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains. New York: Academic Press, 1991.
- Lepper, Bradley T. and Robert E. Funk "Paleo-Indian: East." Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 3, edited by Douglas Ubelaker, pp. 171-193. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press, 2006.
- Haynes, Gary. The Early Settlement of North America: The Clovis Era. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
- Lepper, Bradley T., and Robson Bonnichsen, eds. New Perspectives on the First Americans. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2004.
- Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.
- Meltzer, David. First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.