From Ohio History Central
Photographic copy of a lithograph by Alfred E. Mathews depicting the siege of Vicksburg.
A victory at the siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1863 gave the Union control of the Mississippi River in the American Civil War.
Following the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant's Union army moved south. Grant hoped to secure control of the Mississippi River for the Union. By having control of the river, Union forces would split the Confederacy in two and control an important route to move men and supplies.
The last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River was the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Confederate forces had heavily fortified the city. Grant spent most of the summer of 1862 trying to find a weak point in Vicksburg's defenses. Over the course of the summer and winter months, Grant attempted to bypass the city by digging a canal that would allow him to transport troops and supplies south of the city. The canal project was unsuccessful. Grant failed to find a weak point in the Confederate lines to attack Vicksburg from the north. He then ordered a large part of his army to cross the Mississippi River and march along the river's west bank until the Union force was south of the city.
In April 1863, Union ships north of Vicksburg sailed down the Mississippi River past the Confederate artillery defending the city. Most of these ships arrived south of the city safely and began ferrying Grant's army across the river. The Union marched east toward Jackson, Mississippi. Confederate forces led by General John C. Pemberton tried to stop Grant's advance at the Battle of Port Gibson and the Battle of Raymond in early May 1863. The Confederates failed to stop Grant's advance. Union forces captured Jackson, an important railroad junction, on May 14. The fall of Jackson kept the Confederacy from easily sending reinforcements and supplies to the Confederate troops guarding Vicksburg.
With the fall of Jackson, Grant marched west toward Vicksburg. Pemberton continued to try to stop the Union advance at the Battle of Champion Hill on May 16 and the Battle of Black River Bridge on May 17. The Confederate troops failed in their efforts. The Union forces had nearly forty thousand men and greatly outnumbered the Confederates. In the first few weeks of May 1863, Pemberton lost nearly one-half of his forty thousand men to Grant's army.
By the third week of May 1863, the Union troops had driven the Confederates into Vicksburg. A siege began, which lasted from May 22, 1863 to July 4, 1863. At the start of July, Confederate troops and civilians were starving. Many people survived by eating rats and other animals in the city. Pemberton surrendered his army on July 4, 1863. This victory followed the Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 3, 1863 and helped increase Union morale. In the siege of Vicksburg and the battles leading up to the siege, Grant lost over four thousand men. The Confederate military lost over thirty-five thousand soldiers.
- Ballard, Michael B. Vicksburg: The Campaign that Opened the Mississippi. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
- Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio's War: The Civil War in Documents. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.
- Fullenkamp, Leonard, Stephen Bowman, and Jay Luvaas. Guide to the Vicksburg Campaign. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.
- Grant, Ulysses S. The Civil War Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant. New York, NY: Forge, 2002.
- Grant, Ulysses S. The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, n.d.
- McFeely, William S. Grant: A Biography. New York, NY: Norton, 1981.
- Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of Rebellion, 1861-1866. Akron, OH: The Werner Company, 1893.
- Ohio at Vicksburg. Columbus, OH: n.p., 1906.
- Pemberton, John Clifford. Pemberton: Defender of Vicksburg. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1942.
- Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Generals and Soldiers. Cincinnati, OH: Clarke, 1895.
- Roseboom, Eugene H. The Civil War Era: 1850-1873. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944.
- Shea, William L., and Terrence J. Winschel. Vicksburg is the Key: The Struggle for the Mississippi River. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
- Simpson, Brooks D. Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War and Reconstruction, 1861-1868. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1991.