Buffington Island lies in the Ohio River a half mile downstream of the town of Portland, Ohio, and three miles upstream from Ravenswood, West Virginia. On November 25, 1797, Joel Buffington of Kanawha County, Virginia, purchased the 150-acre island from John Pearce Duvall of Mason County, Kentucky, for a total of five shillings. At that time, virgin timber covered most of the island. Originally called Amberson's Island or the Island of Duvol, by 1807 people most commonly referred to the island by its present name because of the Buffington family’s ownership. Before the end of the American Civil War, the island served as an Underground Railroad stop and as the lair for John Lockwood, Ohio’s last river pirate. Over the decades, Buffington Island has been used for agricultural and mining purposes. In 1993, the whole island received protection as part of the Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge.
Buffington Island is best known for its association with the largest battle to occur in Ohio during the American Civil War.
- Cahill, Lora, and David L. Mowery. Morgan's Raid Across Ohio: The Civil War Guidebook of the John Hunt Morgan Heritage Trail. Columbus, OH: Ohio Historical Society, 2014.
- Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio's War: The Civil War in Documents. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.
- Duke, Basil Wilson. History of Morgan's Cavalry. Cincinnati, OH: Miami Print and Publishing Co., 1867.
- Basil W. ed. Morgan’s Indiana and Ohio Raid. In The Annals of the War Written by Leading Participants North and South. Edited by Alexander K. McClure, 241-256. Philadelphia: Times Publishing Company, 1879.
- Gray & Pape, Inc., Battle of Buffington Island Battlefield Preservation Plan, Lebanon Township, Meigs County, Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Historical Society, 2006.
- Mowery, David L. Morgan’s Great Raid: The Remarkable Expedition from Kentucky to Ohio. Charleston, SC: History Press, 2013.
- Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of Rebellion, 1861-1866. Akron, OH: The Werner Company, 1893.
- Ramage, James A. Rebel Raider: The Life of General John Hunt Morgan. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1986.
- Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Generals and Soldiers. Cincinnati, OH: Clarke, 1895.
- Robertson, Jonathan. Michigan in the War. Lansing, MI: W.S. George & Co., 1882.
- Roseboom, Eugene H. The Civil War Era: 1850-1873. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944.
- Senour, Faunt Le Roy. Morgan and His Captors. Cincinnati, OH: C.F. Vent, 1864.
- Swick, Ray. "Buffington Island," e-WV: The West Virginia Encyclopedia, January 20, 2012.
- Thomas, Edison H. John Hunt Morgan and His Raiders. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1975.
- U.S. War Department. War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Ser. 1, Vol. 23, Pts. 1-2. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1889.
- U.S. War Department. Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion. Ser. 1, Vol. 25. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1912.