Po-Go-Nay-Ke-Shick (Hole in the Day), the celebrated Chippewa chief, ca. 1880-1889.
The Chippewa Indians, also known as the Ojibwa and Anishanabea, lived mainly in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Ontario, Canada. They were part of the Algonquian language family. The Algonquian Indians consisted of various groups of Native Americans that spoke similar languages. The Chippewa were closely related to the Ottawa Indians and Potawatomi Indians.
The Chippewa Indians participated in the fur trade with French merchants. Numerous Frenchmen found wives among Chippewa women. Chippewa warriors fought with the French against the British in the French and Indian War. Following France's defeat, the Chippewa Indians assisted Pontiac in Pontiac's Rebellion. Pontiac was a chief of the Ottawas, but his mother was Chippewa. During the American Revolution, the Chippewa Indians allied themselves with the British. The natives feared white Americans would continue to swarm over the Indians' land if they did not receive assistance from the British.
General Anthony Wayne defeated the Chippewa, who fought alongside other Indians of the Ohio Country, at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. They gave up their claim to lands in Ohio with the signing of several treaties, including the Treaty of Fort Harmar (1789), the Treaty of Greeneville (1795), the Treaty of Fort Industry (1805), and the Treaty of the Maumee Rapids (1817).