9500 B.C. to 8000 B.C.
The Clovis culture is one of the oldest widely recognized cultures of ancient natives in North America. The hallmark of the Clovis culture is the Clovis spear point. It is named for Clovis, New Mexico, where it was first recognized as a tool of Ice Age humans. Archaeologists have found Clovis points from Alaska to northern Mexico and from California to Maine. They are especially common in Ohio and other eastern states. Radiocarbon dates on Clovis sites across North America indicate they lived between 9500 and 8000 BCE.
In the southwestern United States, Clovis points have been found lodged in the ribs of mammoths. In eastern North America, they have been found with mastodon skeletons. It is likely that these hunting and gathering people ate a variety of plants and animals.
- Haynes, Gary. The Early Settlement of North America: The Clovis Era. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
- Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.
- Lepper, Bradley T. and Robert E. Funk "Paleo-Indian: East." Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 3, edited by Douglas Ubelaker, pp. 171-193. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press, 2006.
- Lepper, Bradley T. "Forensic mystery: the Burning Tree mastodon." Timeline 23(4):22-31, 2006.
- Meltzer, David. First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.