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General William Henry Harrison
Dudley's Defeat was an important battle during the War of 1812. The battle took place during the first siege of Fort Meigs.
General William Henry Harrison ordered his men to build Fort Meigs on the southern bank of the Maumee River in February 1813. This fort was to serve as a supply depot and a staging area for the American invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. Fort Meigs was a large fort. Walls made of earth and pointed logs enclosed nearly ten acres. The fort had seven blockhouses and approximately seventy-five cannons.
An army of British soldiers and Indians attacked the fort in April 1813. British cannons bombarded the fort, and Indians ambushed American soldiers when they came outside. The American troops withstood the siege, and the British withdrew in early May. The reason for the British retreat partially stemmed from Dudley's Massacre.
On May 4, 1813, nearly 1,200 American reinforcements neared Fort Meigs. Under the command of General Green Clay, these soldiers primarily consisted of Kentucky militiamen. General Harrison directed Clay to dispatch eight hundred men to attack and disable a British artillery position on the morning of May 5, 1813. Colonel William Dudley led the attack against the British, and his force succeeded in disabling the British cannons and driving the British soldiers from the field.
Against their commander's direct orders, Dudley's men pursued some Indians into the forest instead of continuing their march to Fort Meigs. The natives attacked, and after several hours of fierce fighting, 220 Americans were dead, including Dudley, and the Indians had captured another 350 men. Only two hundred survivors successfully reached Fort Meigs.
While Dudley's Massacre was a defeat for the American military, the destruction of the British cannon helped convince the British soldiers to lift their siege of Fort Meigs. The Indians persuaded the British to attack the fort again in July 1813, but once again, the American defenders were victorious. The two successful defenses of Fort Meigs were an important victory for the Americans. It marked the beginning of the end for the British in the Northwest Territory. Great Britain's failure to drive the Americans from the region convinced Harrison to go on the offensive. In October 1813, the Battle of the Thames occurred. Harrison defeated a joint British and Indian army led by Tecumseh and General Henry Procter at the Battle of the Thames in Canada. British occupation of much of the American Northwest ended as a result, and Tecumseh, who died in the battle, failed to attain his dream of an Indian confederation.
- Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.