Difference between revisions of "Early/Middle Archaic Culture"

From Ohio History Central
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<h2>8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.</h2>
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<p>Early and Middle Archaic culture are terms archaeologists apply to the ancient American Indian people and cultures who were living in present-day Ohio and the surrounding areas between 10,000-8,000 before present (BP) and 8,000-5,000 BP respectively. Early and Middle Archaic culture are also terms of archaeological convenience used to refer to a time period that is characterized by the distinct cultural and technological characteristics of these cultural groups.</p>
<p>The people of the Early and Middle Archaic period continued the basic hunting and gathering way of life established by the earlier Paleoindian cultures, but as the environment shifted from the open spruce forests of the Ice Age to the mix of deciduous trees more characteristic of modern Ohio, the people had to adapt to the changed circumstances. Archaic peoples hunted deer, bear, wild turkey, and other small game and fished in the clear streams, but they began to rely more on plant resources, such as nuts and berries. As a result, Archaic peoples began to utilize a broader range of tools, including stone axes, stone mortars and pestles.</p>
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<p>Characterized by a changing environment, as well as growing populations and technological changes, the Early Archaic period in Ohio took shape at the close of the Ice Age. Throughout the Archaic period, earth’s climate became increasingly warm, much like Ohio’s present climate with four distinct seasons. Early Archaic peoples lived in small groups of hunter-gatherers, following food sources as the seasons changed. Early Archaic peoples gathered berries, hickory nuts, and acorns, and hunted deer, turkeys, rabbits, passenger pigeons, and waterfowl, and fished. Growing populations and new food sources led to technological changes, especially a wider array of spear point types that may have had social significance. </p>
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<p>During the Middle Archaic Period, American Indians continued to live as mobile hunter-gatherers, but began to form larger groups due to increased populations. Just like Early Archaic groups, Middle Archaic peoples crafted a diverse range of spear points, knives, and scraping tools, as well as grinding tools like grooved axes, atlatl weights, grinding stones, pitted stones, plummets, and net sinkers. </p>
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==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
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Revision as of 12:09, 7 August 2018

Early and Middle Archaic culture are terms archaeologists apply to the ancient American Indian people and cultures who were living in present-day Ohio and the surrounding areas between 10,000-8,000 before present (BP) and 8,000-5,000 BP respectively. Early and Middle Archaic culture are also terms of archaeological convenience used to refer to a time period that is characterized by the distinct cultural and technological characteristics of these cultural groups.

Characterized by a changing environment, as well as growing populations and technological changes, the Early Archaic period in Ohio took shape at the close of the Ice Age. Throughout the Archaic period, earth’s climate became increasingly warm, much like Ohio’s present climate with four distinct seasons. Early Archaic peoples lived in small groups of hunter-gatherers, following food sources as the seasons changed. Early Archaic peoples gathered berries, hickory nuts, and acorns, and hunted deer, turkeys, rabbits, passenger pigeons, and waterfowl, and fished. Growing populations and new food sources led to technological changes, especially a wider array of spear point types that may have had social significance.

During the Middle Archaic Period, American Indians continued to live as mobile hunter-gatherers, but began to form larger groups due to increased populations. Just like Early Archaic groups, Middle Archaic peoples crafted a diverse range of spear points, knives, and scraping tools, as well as grinding tools like grooved axes, atlatl weights, grinding stones, pitted stones, plummets, and net sinkers.


See Also

References

  1. Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.