Early/Middle Archaic Culture
File:Ax, Full Grooved.jpeg|
Large ground stone ax has a wide, deep groove near the poll end that extends all the way around. The groove functioned to attach the ax head to a handle. It is bordered by ridges. Poll end is an elongated oval shape that is rounded. Blade is short and tapers slightly to the wide cutting edge, which is dull and pitted. The granite rock is black and pale yellow in color. Item was found in Fayette or Ross County, Ohio.
8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.
The people of the Early and Middle Archaic period continued the basic hunting and gathering way of life established by the earlier Paleoindian cultures, but as the enviroment shifted from the open spruce forests of the Ice Age to the mix of deciduous trees more characteristic of modern Ohio, the people had to adapt to the changed circumstances. Archaic peoples hunted deer, bear, wild turkey, and other small game and fished in the clear streams, but they began to rely more on plant resources, such as nuts and berries. As a result, Archaic peoples began to utilize a broader range of tools, including stone axes, stone mortars and pestles.
- Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.