Early/Middle Archaic Culture
8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.
The people of the Early and Middle Archaic period continued the basic hunting and gathering way of life established by the earlier Paleoindian cultures, but as the environment shifted from the open spruce forests of the Ice Age to the mix of deciduous trees more characteristic of modern Ohio, the people had to adapt to the changed circumstances. Archaic peoples hunted deer, bear, wild turkey, and other small game and fished in the clear streams, but they began to rely more on plant resources, such as nuts and berries. As a result, Archaic peoples began to utilize a broader range of tools, including stone axes, stone mortars and pestles.
- Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.