Early/Middle Archaic Culture
Early and Middle Archaic culture are terms archaeologists apply to the ancient American Indian people and cultures who were living in present-day Ohio and the surrounding areas between 10,000-8,000 before present (BP) and 8,000-5,000 BP respectively. Early and Middle Archaic culture are also terms of archaeological convenience used to refer to a time period that is characterized by the distinct cultural and technological characteristics of these cultural groups.
Characterized by a changing environment, as well as growing populations and technological changes, the Early Archaic period in Ohio took shape at the close of the Ice Age. Throughout the Archaic period, earth’s climate became increasingly warm, much like Ohio’s present climate with four distinct seasons. Early Archaic peoples lived in small groups of hunter-gatherers, following food sources as the seasons changed. Early Archaic peoples gathered berries, hickory nuts, and acorns, and hunted deer, turkeys, rabbits, passenger pigeons, and waterfowl, and fished. Growing populations and new food sources led to technological changes, especially a wider array of spear point types that may have had social significance.
During the Middle Archaic Period, American Indians continued to live as mobile hunter-gatherers, but began to form larger groups due to increased populations. Just like Early Archaic groups, Middle Archaic peoples crafted a diverse range of spear points, knives, and scraping tools, as well as grinding tools like grooved axes, atlatl weights, grinding stones, pitted stones, plummets, and net sinkers.
- Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.