Early Woodland Period
File:American Indian Life in the Early Woodland Period.jpg|
Painting from the Ancient Ohio art series depicting an Early Woodland/Adena (800 BC - AD 1) gathering at a ceremonial earthwork in the Hocking River Valley.
800 B.C. to 100 B.C.
The Early Woodland Period marks the beginning of the Woodland Period. It is characterized by the appearance of more settled village life, cultivated plants, the use of pottery vessels, the increasing use of exotic raw materials such as copper in the creation of ornaments, and the building of conical burial mounds. Many of these things appeared first in the Late Archaic Period, but they became more widespread and typical by the beginning of the Woodland Period.
Hunting wild animals, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods continued to provide the bulk of the food for Early Woodland folk, but the cultivation of squash, sunflower, and a variety of other local plants became increasingly important.
The Adena culture was the most elaborate expression of the Early Woodland period. Adena culture sites are found in southern Ohio and adjacent parts of West Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana.
- Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.