File:Black Hoof, Chief of the Shawnee.jpg
Portrait of Ca-Ta-He-Cas-Sa, or Black Hoof, a chief of the Shawnee tribe from "The Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of the Principal Chiefs," by Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall, 1855. Little is known about his early years. Allied with the French, he was present at the defeat of Edward Braddock during the French and Indian War. He did fight at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and represented the Shawnee at the signing of the Treaty of Greeneville. After this Black Hoof became convinced that the Indians had no hope against the whites except to adopt their customs. Using his influence with the Shawnee, Black Hoof encouraged the Shawnee to adopt the whites' way of living. By 1808, his followers established farms at Wapakoneta. Conflicts between the Shawnee and settlers continued. In 1826, Black Hoof led several hundred Shawnee people to the Kansas territory. After leading his followers to Kansas, Black Hoof returned to Wapakoneta and died there in 1831.
Ohio Historical Society Library, V 970.97 M199h 1855 v., AL02908 from the Printed Material Collection.
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