French and Indian War
Leading European powers during the mid-18th century were conflicting against one another for control of land and dominance. These tensions developed into a confrontation between various countries known as The Seven Years War that pitted France, Austria, Sweden, Russia, and Saxony against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain. Conflicts were not just isolated to European boundaries but were on a global scale with hostilities expanding into territories surrounding India and North America. The struggle occurring within the colonies centered Great Britain against France known as the French and Indian War. North American territory was dominated by the British on the eastern coast, the French down in Louisiana up through Canada following the Mississippi Valley, and the Spanish in Florida. Each European power was vying for dominance within North America and all were aiming to claim the most land possible. Due to Spain’s miniscule settlement the main conflict for supremacy came between Great Britain and France. There were no clear dividing lines that separated New France from the British colonies so constant disagreements arose about who could claim what land. Specifically, regions around the Ohio Valley into the Ohio River and up near the Great Lakes produced the largest controversy. France, who first discovered the Ohio country, claimed control because they had not only settled into that area first but also established trading centers to ensure a lasting hold on the region. Great Britain demanded ownership because the land grants issued by the monarchy allotted the colonies with claim to all areas expanding from the east coast to the not yet settled west coast. Since there was no specific divider as well as an undetermined ownership of bordering territories, British colonists, unhappy with the overcrowding occurring on the East coast, expanded their settlements into "French" lands, taking over already established areas for their own specific use. The French and many American Indian nations were frustrated with these imperialistic actions of the British.
Tensions escalated when the French built a trading fort, known as Fort Duquesne, in what would be Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Great Britain felt that this was strictly within their colonial territory. The British government sent over a representative, 21 year old George Washington, to demand that the French relinquish their fort and return back to their own settlements. New France refused to accommodate the terms which caused Washington and the small number of soldiers accompanying him to attack thus starting the French and Indian War in the year of 1756. The first physical conflicts between the two countries occurred at Fort Duquesne where the French were pitted against Washington and the newly arrived General Edward Braddock. The British outnumbered the French, however they were attempting to fight like the typical European style of the open battlefield, marching towards enemy, and shooting at the opponent whereas the French opted for a more guerrilla warfare style of concealing themselves from the British while surprise attacking them. Many American Indian peoples of the region, angered by the expansion of British colonies into their homelands, aligned with the French during the war, although some such as the Iroquois affiliated with the British due to their frustration at France’s original colonialism.
The bulk of the fighting occurred along Lake Champlain and Lake George, in today's upstate New York, in order for both sides to move supplies and troops more efficiently. Great Britain began the war off with a series of unsuccessful attempts to overtake French forts as they adjusted to the new style of military strategy that France was utilizing. However, momentum shifted in favor of Great Britain when the British military was able to claim Fort Carillon, later named Fort Ticonderoga, and overtake Quebec. With the main hold of Canada seized, a lost position in India, and a weak showing in Europe France realized that victory over Britain was nearly impossible. In response, France attempted to organize a peace agreement with Great Britain but the demands of the British were too great to accept. Instead, King Charles III of Spain offered his services to aid his cousin, King Louis XV of France, in case the British did not agree to a peace terms by May 1, 1762, this was known as the Family Compact. This alliance was meant to be an initiative for the British to end the war, however, France saw this alignment as an option for victory. Overall, this was not a strategic benefit as the British Navy was completely overpowering the Spanish Armada and was able to gain the French Caribbean Islands, the Philippines, and Spanish Cuba. With a loss of territory and failed invasions of Britain occurring in Europe simultaneously the French diplomats sought peace.
In 1763 the European powers of Great Britain, France, and Spain as well as Portugal collectively signed the Treaty of Paris thus ending the Seven Years War and more specifically the French and Indian War. Great Britain received the main rewards from the agreement as France and Spain both gave up the territories they held within North America. However, Great Britain paid a heavy price to fight the expensive war on multiple fronts, therefore they were left with heavy debts. In order to pay off their debts the British government began to issue high taxes upon the citizens and the products they bought. Also, in order to keep compatible relations with American Indians in the region, the monarchy issued the Proclamation of 1763 to reduce the amount of westward expansion by Anglo-American settlers into the freshly obtained territory that was once New France. With higher living expenses and reduced abilities to expand settlements, colonists became disheartened with the British government. This tension would eventually develop into the American Revolution.
- Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.