Difference between revisions of "Fur Trade"

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<p>The fur trade in North America began with the earliest contacts between Native Americans and the Europeans. Within a few years of their arrival in the New World, French, English, and Dutch fur traders were competing with each other to form trading relationships with the Indians. In Europe, there was a good market for furs, while in America there were seemingly limitless numbers of fur-bearing animals.</p>
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<p>Fur traders offered the Indians a line of goods, including iron axes, knives, hatchets, awls, fish hooks, trade cloth of various types and colors, woolen blankets, linen shirts, brass kettles, jewelry, glass beads, muskets, ammunition, and gun powder. They also brought numerous types of alcohol, especially brandy and rum, to trade. The Indians eagerly sought these items and paid for them in furs. While the Europeans most coveted the beaver pelt, they also accepted otter, mink, fox, bear, and deerskins as payment for their goods. Very quickly the natives became dependent on European products. Many Indians abandoned their own culture for that of the Europeans. Manufactured goods replaced the items that natives had formerly made for themselves.</p>
}}
+
<p>There were other problems with the fur trade. Competition between tribes over hunting grounds became more pronounced after the Europeans' arrival. Tensions also caused conflict among the English, the French, and the Dutch. The competition between the English and the French culminated in the French and Indian War. The Native American chiefs saw that each side was using them, but because of the Indians' dependence on white goods, they had to become involved in these conflicts. While there were many honest traders who dealt fairly with the Indians, others were greedy and unscrupulous men who cheated and exploited the natives. Alcohol was an important and permanent part of the trade. It had devastating effects on many Indian tribes. Numerous witnesses have written of the violence that the liquor trade brought to Indian villages.</p>
<p>The fur trade in North America began with the earliest contacts between Native Americans and the Europeans. Within a few years of their arrival in the New World, French, English, and Dutch fur traders were competing with each other to form trading relationships with the Indians. In Europe, there was a good market for furs, while in America there were seemingly limitless numbers of fur-bearing animals.</p>  
+
<p>In a conference at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on October 3, 1753, some of the Six Nations protested to a commission appointed to hear their grievances and to the governor of Pennsylvania about the traders. The Iroquois chief Scarrooyady said: </p>
<p>Fur traders offered the Indians a line of goods, including iron axes, knives, hatchets, awls, fish hooks, trade cloth of various types and colors, woolen blankets, linen shirts, brass kettles, jewelry, glass beads, muskets, ammunition, and gun powder. They also brought numerous types of alcohol, especially brandy and rum, to trade. The Indians eagerly sought these items and paid for them in furs. While the Europeans most coveted the beaver pelt, they also accepted otter, mink, fox, bear, and deerskins as payment for their goods. Very quickly the natives became dependent on European products. Many Indians abandoned their own culture for that of the Europeans. Manufactured goods replaced the items that natives had formerly made for themselves.</p>  
+
<blockquote>Your Traders now bring scarce anything but Rum and Flour; they bring little powder and lead, or other valuable goods. The Rum ruins us. We beg you would prevent its coming such quantities by regulating the Traders. We never understood the Trade was to be for Whiskey and Flour. We desire it may be forbidden, and none sold in the Indian Country; but if the Indians will have any they may go among the inhabitants and deal with them for it. When these Whiskey Traders come, They bring thirty or forty kegs and put them down before us and make us drink, and get all the skins that should go to pay the debts we have contracted for goods bought of the Fair Traders; by this means we not only ruin ourselves but them too. These wicked Whiskey Sellers, when they have once got the Indians in liquor, make them sell their very clothes from their backs. In short, if this practice be continued, we must be inevitably ruined.</blockquote>
<p>There were other problems with the fur trade. Competition between tribes over hunting grounds became more pronounced after the Europeans' arrival. Tensions also caused conflict among the English, the French, and the Dutch. The competition between the English and the French culminated in the French and Indian War. The Native American chiefs saw that each side was using them, but because of the Indians' dependence on white goods, they had to become involved in these conflicts. While there were many honest traders who dealt fairly with the Indians, others were greedy and unscrupulous men who cheated and exploited the natives. Alcohol was an important and permanent part of the trade. It had devastating effects on many Indian tribes. Numerous witnesses have written of the violence that the liquor trade brought to Indian villages.</p>  
+
<p>The difficult problem of alcohol in the fur trade was never eliminated. In fact, its effect on the Indians increased as the fur-bearing animals were depleted and the Indians began to surrender their lands. Eventually the fur trade moved into the West, beyond the Mississippi. There the beaver was reduced to virtual extinction during the nineteenth century. </p>
<p>In a conference at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on October 3, 1753, some of the Six Nations protested to a commission appointed to hear their grievances and to the governor of Pennsylvania about the traders. The Iroquois chief Scarrooyady said: </p>  
+
<p>Despite the inherent problems of the fur trade, the Indians were relatively well paid for the furs. These are the average prices for furs and peltries at Fort Wayne, Indiana, in the late 1700s and the early 1800s: </p>
<blockquote>
+
<ul>
Your Traders now bring scarce anything but Rum and Flour; they bring little powder and lead, or other valuable goods. The Rum ruins us. We beg you would prevent its coming such quantities by regulating the Traders. We never understood the Trade was to be for Whiskey and Flour. We desire it may be forbidden, and none sold in the Indian Country; but if the Indians will have any they may go among the inhabitants and deal with them for it. When these Whiskey Traders come, They bring thirty or forty kegs and put them down before us and make us drink, and get all the skins that should go to pay the debts we have contracted for goods bought of the Fair Traders; by this means we not only ruin ourselves but them too. These wicked Whiskey Sellers, when they have once got the Indians in liquor, make them sell their very clothes from their backs. In short, if this practice be continued, we must be inevitably ruined.
+
<li>Raccoons-from 37 1/2 to 40 cents each </li>
</blockquote>  
+
<li>Foxes, cats, and fishers-from 50 to 67 cents </li>
<p>The difficult problem of alcohol in the fur trade was never eliminated. In fact, its effect on the Indians increased as the fur-bearing animals were depleted and the Indians began to surrender their lands. Eventually the fur trade moved into the West, beyond the Mississippi. There the beaver was reduced to virtual extinction during the nineteenth century. </p>  
+
<li>Minks-50 cents each </li>
<p>Despite the inherent problems of the fur trade, the Indians were relatively well paid for the furs. These are the average prices for furs and peltries at Fort Wayne, Indiana, in the late 1700s and the early 1800s: </p>  
+
<li>Muskrats grown ones-25 cents each </li>
<ul>  
+
<li>Otters-4 to 5 DLLS each </li>
<li>Raccoons-from 37 1/2 to 40 cents each </li>  
+
<li>Bears grown ones-same as otters </li>
<li>Foxes, cats, and fishers-from 50 to 67 cents </li>  
+
<li>Beavers-125 cents </li>
<li>Minks-50 cents each </li>  
+
<li>Buckskins always-100 cents </li>
<li>Muskrats grown ones-25 cents each </li>  
+
<li>Does skins-67 to 75 cents each </li>
<li>Otters-4 to 5 DLLS each </li>  
+
<li>Dressed does skins, buck and does-75 cents </li>
<li>Bears grown ones-same as otters </li>  
+
<li>Does-75 cents </li></ul>
<li>Beavers-125 cents </li>  
+
<p>The inventory of merchandise at the United States Trading House, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1810, gives us a picture of the items that natives coveted:</p>
<li>Buckskins always-100 cents </li>  
+
<ul>
<li>Does skins-67 to 75 cents each </li>  
+
<li>3 nest copper kettles-7 </li>
<li>Dressed does skins, buck and does-75 cents </li>  
+
<li>In a nest with covers weight 100 lbs. at 90 counts per lb. </li>
<li>Does-75 cents </li>
+
<li>1 nest containing 12 copper kettles without covers weight 100 1/2 lb-at 80 counts </li>
</ul>  
+
<li>38 rifles--$12.50 </li>
<p>The inventory of merchandise at the United States Trading House, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1810, gives us a picture of the items that natives coveted:</p>  
+
<li>2 casks powder </li>
<ul>  
+
<li>185 lb. B.B. patent Shot--$14.50 cwt. </li>
<li>3 nest copper kettles-7 </li>  
+
<li>760 pair Ear Bobs Ca.--$12.50 per 100 pair </li>
<li>In a nest with covers weight 100 lbs. at 90 counts per lb. </li>  
+
<li>16 pair fluted wrist bands weight 14 oz 2 Dwts. Ca--$1.60 per oz. </li>
<li>1 nest containing 12 copper kettles without covers weight 100 1/2 lb-at 80 counts </li>  
+
<li>31 head bands with eagles weight 23 oz. 8 dwts. </li>
<li>38 rifles--$12.50 </li>  
+
<li>1 dozen broaches [sic] weight 3 oz. 5 dwts. </li>
<li>2 casks powder </li>  
+
<li>300 small ditto 1&quot; 12 </li>
<li>185 lb. B.B. patent Shot--$14.50 cwt. </li>  
+
<li>6 gorgets $18.36 per dozen </li>
<li>760 pair Ear Bobs Ca.--$12.50 per 100 pair </li>  
+
<li>1 dozen larger round broaches weight 5 oz. 12 dwt. </li>
<li>16 pair fluted wrist bands weight 14 oz 2 Dwts. Ca--$1.60 per oz. </li>  
+
<li>1 dozen ear wheels weight 3 oz. </li>
<li>31 head bands with eagles weight 23 oz. 8 dwts. </li>  
+
<li>2 boxes bar lead </li>
<li>1 dozen broaches [sic] weight 3 oz. 5 dwts. </li>  
+
<li>18 beaver traps--$2.25 </li>
<li>300 small ditto 1&quot; 12 </li>  
+
<li>20 ditto traps--$3.00 </li>
<li>6 gorgets $18.36 per dozen </li>  
+
<li>3 traps--$1.67 </li>
<li>1 dozen larger round broaches weight 5 oz. 12 dwt. </li>  
+
<li>330 lb. pig tail tobacco--$15 </li>
<li>1 dozen ear wheels weight 3 oz. </li>  
+
<li>2 shot bags-- $1. 259 yards yellow flannel-40 cents </li>
<li>2 boxes bar lead </li>  
+
<li>7 1/2&quot; red ditto-41 cents </li>
<li>18 beaver traps--$2.25 </li>  
+
<li>14&quot; white ditto-41 cents </li>
<li>20 ditto traps--$3.00 </li>  
+
<li>14 3/4 blue cloth-1 2/6 </li>
<li>3 traps--$1.67 </li>  
+
<li>6&quot; stroud cloth 96 1/2 </li>
<li>330 lb. pig tail tobacco--$15 </li>  
+
<li>400 small crosses-6 1/2 </li>
<li>2 shot bags-- $1. 259 yards yellow flannel-40 cents </li>  
+
<li>200 crosses </li>
<li>7 1/2&quot; red ditto-41 cents </li>  
+
<li>47 nose wheels-20 </li>
<li>14&quot; white ditto-41 cents </li>  
+
<li>23 fish lines with hooks </li>
<li>14 3/4 blue cloth-1 2/6 </li>  
+
<li>5 1/4 dozen ivory combs-300 </li>
<li>6&quot; stroud cloth 96 1/2 </li>  
+
<li>1 gross straight awls </li>
<li>400 small crosses-6 1/2 </li>  
+
<li>116 bullet moulds--37 1/2 cents </li>
<li>200 crosses </li>  
+
<li>7 powder horns </li>
<li>47 nose wheels-20 </li>  
+
<li>2 large ditto </li>
<li>23 fish lines with hooks </li>  
+
<li>25 1/2 lb. powder-40 cents </li>
<li>5 1/4 dozen ivory combs-300 </li>  
+
<li>27 lb. vermillion--$1.40 </li>
<li>1 gross straight awls </li>  
+
<li>15 com. gun locks--$1.20 </li>
<li>116 bullet moulds--37 1/2 cents </li>  
+
<li>3 double roller ditto--$3.13 </li>
<li>7 powder horns </li>  
+
<li>2&quot; 3/4 bridled ditto--$2.87 </li>
<li>2 large ditto </li>  
+
<li>11 best ditto--$2.80 </li>
<li>25 1/2 lb. powder-40 cents </li>  
+
<li>28 pair two point blankets-- $2.27 </li>
<li>27 lb. vermillion--$1.40 </li>  
+
<li>6 pair 3 point ditto--$3.68 </li>
<li>15 com. gun locks--$1.20 </li>  
+
<li>5 pair 3 1/2 point ditto--$3.75 </li>
<li>3 double roller ditto--$3.13 </li>  
+
<li>1 pair American 3 point ditto </li>
<li>2&quot; 3/4 bridled ditto--$2.87 </li>  
+
<li>14 calico shirts--$1.20 </li>
<li>11 best ditto--$2.80 </li>  
+
<li>59 pipe tomahawks--$1.50 </li>
<li>28 pair two point blankets-- $2.27 </li>  
+
<li>196 lb. buckshot </li>
<li>6 pair 3 point ditto--$3.68 </li>  
+
<li>10 fowling pieces--$11.33 </li>
<li>5 pair 3 1/2 point ditto--$3.75 </li>  
+
<li>33 plain tomahawks </li>
<li>1 pair American 3 point ditto </li>  
+
<li>119 axes</li></ul>
<li>14 calico shirts--$1.20 </li>  
+
<li>59 pipe tomahawks--$1.50 </li>  
+
<li>196 lb. buckshot </li>  
+
<li>10 fowling pieces--$11.33 </li>  
+
<li>33 plain tomahawks </li>  
+
<li>119 axes</li>
+
</ul>  
+
 
<p>By the early 1800s, many Indian tribes faced starvation due to the shortage of animals. The Shawnee Indians were in especially hard times. The Shawnee Prophet tried to convince his people to give up all white customs and products. He had only limited success. His brother Tecumseh tried to unite the Indians west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River into a confederation. One of the principal reasons that his plan failed was his inability to feed his followers due to the lack of animals. </p>
 
<p>By the early 1800s, many Indian tribes faced starvation due to the shortage of animals. The Shawnee Indians were in especially hard times. The Shawnee Prophet tried to convince his people to give up all white customs and products. He had only limited success. His brother Tecumseh tried to unite the Indians west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River into a confederation. One of the principal reasons that his plan failed was his inability to feed his followers due to the lack of animals. </p>
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
<div class="seeAlsoText">
 
<div class="seeAlsoText">
 
*[[American Beaver]]
 
*[[American Beaver]]
*[[Appalachian Mountains]]
 
 
*[[Beaver Wars]]
 
*[[Beaver Wars]]
*[[Extinct]]
 
 
*[[French and Indian War]]
 
*[[French and Indian War]]
 
*[[Iroquois Indians]]
 
*[[Iroquois Indians]]
 
*[[Raccoon]]
 
*[[Raccoon]]
 +
*[[Tecumseh's Confederation]]
 
*[[Shawnee Indians]]
 
*[[Shawnee Indians]]
 +
*[[Tenskwatawa]]
 
*[[Tecumseh]]
 
*[[Tecumseh]]
*[[Tecumseh's Confederation]]
+
*[[Appalachian Mountains]]
*[[Tenskwatawa - The Prophet]]
+
 
*[[Tobacco]]
 
*[[Tobacco]]
 +
*[[Extinct]]
 
</div>
 
</div>
 +
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<div class="referencesText">
 
<div class="referencesText">
#Dunn, Walter S., Jr. <em>Frontier Profit and Loss: The British Army and the Fur Traders, 1760-1764</em>. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
 
#Dunn, Walter S., Jr. <em>Opening New Markets: The British Army and the Old Northwest</em>. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
 
 
#Gilman, Carolyn, ed. <em>Where Two Worlds Meet: The Great Lakes Fur Trade</em>. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1982.
 
#Gilman, Carolyn, ed. <em>Where Two Worlds Meet: The Great Lakes Fur Trade</em>. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1982.
 
#Hurt, R. Douglas. <em>The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830</em>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
 
#Hurt, R. Douglas. <em>The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830</em>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
 +
#Dunn, Walter S., Jr. <em>Opening New Markets: The British Army and the Old Northwest</em>. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
 +
#Dunn, Walter S., Jr. <em>Frontier Profit and Loss: The British Army and the Fur Traders, 1760-1764</em>. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
 
#Sleeper-Smith, Susan. <em>Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes</em>. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.
 
#Sleeper-Smith, Susan. <em>Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes</em>. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.
 
#Stevens, Wayne Edson. <em>The Northwest Fur Trade, 1763-1800</em>. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1928.
 
#Stevens, Wayne Edson. <em>The Northwest Fur Trade, 1763-1800</em>. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1928.
 
</div>
 
</div>
[[Category:History Topics]][[Category:Exploration To Statehood]]
+
[[Category:History Topics]][[Category:Exploration To Statehood]][[Category:American Indians]][[Category:Business and Industry]][[Category:Frontier Ohio]]
[[Category:American Indians]]
+
[[Category:Business and Industry]]
+
[[Category:Frontier Ohio]]
+

Revision as of 15:31, 23 May 2013

The fur trade in North America began with the earliest contacts between Native Americans and the Europeans. Within a few years of their arrival in the New World, French, English, and Dutch fur traders were competing with each other to form trading relationships with the Indians. In Europe, there was a good market for furs, while in America there were seemingly limitless numbers of fur-bearing animals.

Fur traders offered the Indians a line of goods, including iron axes, knives, hatchets, awls, fish hooks, trade cloth of various types and colors, woolen blankets, linen shirts, brass kettles, jewelry, glass beads, muskets, ammunition, and gun powder. They also brought numerous types of alcohol, especially brandy and rum, to trade. The Indians eagerly sought these items and paid for them in furs. While the Europeans most coveted the beaver pelt, they also accepted otter, mink, fox, bear, and deerskins as payment for their goods. Very quickly the natives became dependent on European products. Many Indians abandoned their own culture for that of the Europeans. Manufactured goods replaced the items that natives had formerly made for themselves.

There were other problems with the fur trade. Competition between tribes over hunting grounds became more pronounced after the Europeans' arrival. Tensions also caused conflict among the English, the French, and the Dutch. The competition between the English and the French culminated in the French and Indian War. The Native American chiefs saw that each side was using them, but because of the Indians' dependence on white goods, they had to become involved in these conflicts. While there were many honest traders who dealt fairly with the Indians, others were greedy and unscrupulous men who cheated and exploited the natives. Alcohol was an important and permanent part of the trade. It had devastating effects on many Indian tribes. Numerous witnesses have written of the violence that the liquor trade brought to Indian villages.

In a conference at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on October 3, 1753, some of the Six Nations protested to a commission appointed to hear their grievances and to the governor of Pennsylvania about the traders. The Iroquois chief Scarrooyady said:

Your Traders now bring scarce anything but Rum and Flour; they bring little powder and lead, or other valuable goods. The Rum ruins us. We beg you would prevent its coming such quantities by regulating the Traders. We never understood the Trade was to be for Whiskey and Flour. We desire it may be forbidden, and none sold in the Indian Country; but if the Indians will have any they may go among the inhabitants and deal with them for it. When these Whiskey Traders come, They bring thirty or forty kegs and put them down before us and make us drink, and get all the skins that should go to pay the debts we have contracted for goods bought of the Fair Traders; by this means we not only ruin ourselves but them too. These wicked Whiskey Sellers, when they have once got the Indians in liquor, make them sell their very clothes from their backs. In short, if this practice be continued, we must be inevitably ruined.

The difficult problem of alcohol in the fur trade was never eliminated. In fact, its effect on the Indians increased as the fur-bearing animals were depleted and the Indians began to surrender their lands. Eventually the fur trade moved into the West, beyond the Mississippi. There the beaver was reduced to virtual extinction during the nineteenth century.

Despite the inherent problems of the fur trade, the Indians were relatively well paid for the furs. These are the average prices for furs and peltries at Fort Wayne, Indiana, in the late 1700s and the early 1800s:

  • Raccoons-from 37 1/2 to 40 cents each
  • Foxes, cats, and fishers-from 50 to 67 cents
  • Minks-50 cents each
  • Muskrats grown ones-25 cents each
  • Otters-4 to 5 DLLS each
  • Bears grown ones-same as otters
  • Beavers-125 cents
  • Buckskins always-100 cents
  • Does skins-67 to 75 cents each
  • Dressed does skins, buck and does-75 cents
  • Does-75 cents

The inventory of merchandise at the United States Trading House, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1810, gives us a picture of the items that natives coveted:

  • 3 nest copper kettles-7
  • In a nest with covers weight 100 lbs. at 90 counts per lb.
  • 1 nest containing 12 copper kettles without covers weight 100 1/2 lb-at 80 counts
  • 38 rifles--$12.50
  • 2 casks powder
  • 185 lb. B.B. patent Shot--$14.50 cwt.
  • 760 pair Ear Bobs Ca.--$12.50 per 100 pair
  • 16 pair fluted wrist bands weight 14 oz 2 Dwts. Ca--$1.60 per oz.
  • 31 head bands with eagles weight 23 oz. 8 dwts.
  • 1 dozen broaches [sic] weight 3 oz. 5 dwts.
  • 300 small ditto 1" 12
  • 6 gorgets $18.36 per dozen
  • 1 dozen larger round broaches weight 5 oz. 12 dwt.
  • 1 dozen ear wheels weight 3 oz.
  • 2 boxes bar lead
  • 18 beaver traps--$2.25
  • 20 ditto traps--$3.00
  • 3 traps--$1.67
  • 330 lb. pig tail tobacco--$15
  • 2 shot bags-- $1. 259 yards yellow flannel-40 cents
  • 7 1/2" red ditto-41 cents
  • 14" white ditto-41 cents
  • 14 3/4 blue cloth-1 2/6
  • 6" stroud cloth 96 1/2
  • 400 small crosses-6 1/2
  • 200 crosses
  • 47 nose wheels-20
  • 23 fish lines with hooks
  • 5 1/4 dozen ivory combs-300
  • 1 gross straight awls
  • 116 bullet moulds--37 1/2 cents
  • 7 powder horns
  • 2 large ditto
  • 25 1/2 lb. powder-40 cents
  • 27 lb. vermillion--$1.40
  • 15 com. gun locks--$1.20
  • 3 double roller ditto--$3.13
  • 2" 3/4 bridled ditto--$2.87
  • 11 best ditto--$2.80
  • 28 pair two point blankets-- $2.27
  • 6 pair 3 point ditto--$3.68
  • 5 pair 3 1/2 point ditto--$3.75
  • 1 pair American 3 point ditto
  • 14 calico shirts--$1.20
  • 59 pipe tomahawks--$1.50
  • 196 lb. buckshot
  • 10 fowling pieces--$11.33
  • 33 plain tomahawks
  • 119 axes

By the early 1800s, many Indian tribes faced starvation due to the shortage of animals. The Shawnee Indians were in especially hard times. The Shawnee Prophet tried to convince his people to give up all white customs and products. He had only limited success. His brother Tecumseh tried to unite the Indians west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River into a confederation. One of the principal reasons that his plan failed was his inability to feed his followers due to the lack of animals.

See Also

References

  1. Gilman, Carolyn, ed. Where Two Worlds Meet: The Great Lakes Fur Trade. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1982.
  2. Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
  3. Dunn, Walter S., Jr. Opening New Markets: The British Army and the Old Northwest. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
  4. Dunn, Walter S., Jr. Frontier Profit and Loss: The British Army and the Fur Traders, 1760-1764. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
  5. Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.
  6. Stevens, Wayne Edson. The Northwest Fur Trade, 1763-1800. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1928.