During the American Revolution, Captain Henry Bird led a combined force of British troops and Shawnee natives against white settlements in Kentucky. In 1779, Colonel John Bowman and a band of three hundred Kentuckians attacked Native Americans living near modern-day Xenia, Ohio. In retaliation, the following year Bird and his troops began an invasion into Kentucky. The British troops and their Native American allies were optimistic about their potential success, as they brought with them two small field pieces that they felt would easily destroy the settlements' fortifications. In the raid's early days, Bird and his men vanquished two of the settlements, but soon the expedition began to unravel. The natives chose to return north of the Ohio River rather than setting up a long siege as the British had intended. The success of Bird's attack alarmed the Kentuckians. They later organized a raid of one thousand men, under the leadership of George Rogers Clark, to go on the offensive against the Shawnees. Clark and his men destroyed several Shawnee villages and defeated some of the Native Americans at the Battle of Piqua in 1782.
- Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
- Waller, George Macgregor. The American Revolution in the West. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, 1976.