Difference between revisions of "Late Prehistoric Period"

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{{infobox
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<h2>A.D. 900 to 1650</h2>
| image = [[File:American Indian Life in the Late Prehistoric Period.jpeg]]
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<p>The Late Prehistoric* Period refers to the time immediately before the movement of Europeans into the Ohio country. The Native American cultures occupying Ohio during this period lived in large villages often surrounded by a stockade wall. Sometimes they built their villages on high ground overlooking a river. Leadership may have become centralized in one or two leaders, perhaps including a war chief.</p>
| caption = Painting from the Ancient Ohio art series depicting a Late Prehistoric/Fort Ancient (AD 900 - AD 1650) village in the Miami River Valley.
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<p>Late Prehistoric people grew maize (or corn), beans, and squash in their fields. They continued to hunt, fish, and gather wild plant foods, but maize was, by far, their most important source of food.</p>
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<p>Their ritual life was centered on the plazas at the center of their villages and often the dead were buried in graves surrounding the plaza. Effigy mounds represent a new development during this period. Serpent Mound and the Alligator Mound appear to have been shrines to important spirits that still were revered by the tribes of the historic period. </p>
<h2>A.D. 900 to 1650</h2>  
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<p>During the Late Prehistoric Period, several distinctive cultures arose in different parts of Ohio: the Fort Ancient culture in central and southern Ohio, Sandusky culture in northwestern Ohio, Whittlesey culture in northeastern Ohio, and the Monongahela culture in eastern Ohio.</p>
<p>The Late Prehistoric Period refers to the time immediately before the movement of Europeans into the Ohio country. The American Indian cultures occupying Ohio during this period lived in large villages often surrounded by a stockade wall. Sometimes they built their villages on high ground overlooking a river. Leadership may have become centralized in one or two leaders, perhaps including a war chief.</p>  
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<p>The Late Prehistoric Period also is called the Mississippian Period. In the Mississippi Valley and in the Southeastern United States, large cites grew up during this time. The largest was Cahokia in Illinois. </p>
<p>Late Prehistoric people grew maize (or corn), beans, and squash in their fields. They continued to hunt, fish, and gather wild plant foods, but maize was, by far, their most important source of food.</p>  
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<p>Perhaps similar large cities would have become established in Ohio, but the Beaver Wars and then the movement of Europeans into the region forever changed the lives of Ohio's Native Americans.&nbsp;</p>
<p>Their ritual life was centered on the plazas at the center of their villages and often the dead were buried in graves surrounding the plaza. Effigy mounds represent a new development during this period. Serpent Mound and the Alligator Mound appear to have been shrines to important spirits that still were revered by the tribes of the historic period. </p>  
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<p>*It should be noted that, though it is still a recognized term of archaeological convenience, "Late Prehistoric" is something of a misnomer. The term is an archaeological heuristic that has been traditionally used to group artifacts of American Indian cultures on the North American continent after the Late Woodland period. Referring to the groups behind these artifacts as "pre-historic," however, is problematic: it suggests that these groups lacked a rich culture and history, and can potentially reflect an imperialist viewpoint. Today, we would call these societies and cultures "pre-contact"; the archaeological convenience term has been left here, however, because it remains in currency in some archaeological and historical texts. </p>
<p>During the Late Prehistoric Period, several distinctive cultures arose in different parts of Ohio: the Fort Ancient culture in central and southern Ohio, Sandusky culture in northwestern Ohio, Whittlesey culture in northeastern Ohio, and the Monongahela culture in eastern Ohio.</p>  
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<p>The Late Prehistoric Period also is called the Mississippian Period. In the Mississippi Valley and in the Southeastern United States, large cites grew up during this time. The largest was Cahokia in Illinois.</p>  
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<p>Perhaps similar large cities would have become established in Ohio, but the Beaver Wars and then the movement of Europeans into the region forever changed the lives of Ohio's American Indian peoples.&nbsp;</p>
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==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
<div class="seeAlsoText">
 
<div class="seeAlsoText">
*[[Arrowheads]]
 
*[[Beaver Wars]]
 
*[[Fort Ancient Ceramic Jar]]
 
 
*[[Fort Ancient Culture]]
 
*[[Fort Ancient Culture]]
*[[Fort Ancient Face]]
 
*[[Fort Ancient Pots]]
 
*[[Maize]]
 
*[[Monongahela Culture]]
 
 
*[[Ohio]]
 
*[[Ohio]]
 
*[[Ohio's Prehistoric Timeline]]
 
*[[Ohio's Prehistoric Timeline]]
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*[[Monongahela Culture]]
 
*[[Sandusky Culture]]
 
*[[Sandusky Culture]]
 
*[[Whittlesey Culture]]
 
*[[Whittlesey Culture]]
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*[[Arrowheads]]
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*[[Fort Ancient Ceramic Jar]]
 +
*[[Maize]]
 +
*[[Beaver Wars]]
 +
*[[http://www.oplin.org/point/people/ftanpeop.html Late Prehistoric]]
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*[[http://66.195.173.140/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=273 Virtual First Ohioans]]
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*[[http://www.sunwatch.org/  SunWatch Indian Village]]
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*[[http://www.cahokiamounds.com/cahokia.html  Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site]]
 
</div>
 
</div>
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==References==
 
==References==
 
<div class="referencesText">
 
<div class="referencesText">
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#Milner, George R. <em>The Moundbuilders: Ancient Peoples of Eastern North America. </em>London, Thames &amp; Hudson, 2005.
 
#Milner, George R. <em>The Moundbuilders: Ancient Peoples of Eastern North America. </em>London, Thames &amp; Hudson, 2005.
 
</div>
 
</div>
[[Category:Prehistory Groups]][[Category:Prehistory]]
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[[Category:Prehistory Groups]][[Category:Prehistory]][[Category:American Indians]][[Category:WIP]]
[[Category:American Indians]]
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Latest revision as of 13:04, 17 June 2015

A.D. 900 to 1650

The Late Prehistoric* Period refers to the time immediately before the movement of Europeans into the Ohio country. The Native American cultures occupying Ohio during this period lived in large villages often surrounded by a stockade wall. Sometimes they built their villages on high ground overlooking a river. Leadership may have become centralized in one or two leaders, perhaps including a war chief.

Late Prehistoric people grew maize (or corn), beans, and squash in their fields. They continued to hunt, fish, and gather wild plant foods, but maize was, by far, their most important source of food.

Their ritual life was centered on the plazas at the center of their villages and often the dead were buried in graves surrounding the plaza. Effigy mounds represent a new development during this period. Serpent Mound and the Alligator Mound appear to have been shrines to important spirits that still were revered by the tribes of the historic period.

During the Late Prehistoric Period, several distinctive cultures arose in different parts of Ohio: the Fort Ancient culture in central and southern Ohio, Sandusky culture in northwestern Ohio, Whittlesey culture in northeastern Ohio, and the Monongahela culture in eastern Ohio.

The Late Prehistoric Period also is called the Mississippian Period. In the Mississippi Valley and in the Southeastern United States, large cites grew up during this time. The largest was Cahokia in Illinois.

Perhaps similar large cities would have become established in Ohio, but the Beaver Wars and then the movement of Europeans into the region forever changed the lives of Ohio's Native Americans. 

*It should be noted that, though it is still a recognized term of archaeological convenience, "Late Prehistoric" is something of a misnomer. The term is an archaeological heuristic that has been traditionally used to group artifacts of American Indian cultures on the North American continent after the Late Woodland period. Referring to the groups behind these artifacts as "pre-historic," however, is problematic: it suggests that these groups lacked a rich culture and history, and can potentially reflect an imperialist viewpoint. Today, we would call these societies and cultures "pre-contact"; the archaeological convenience term has been left here, however, because it remains in currency in some archaeological and historical texts.

See Also

References

  1. Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005. 
  2. Lepper, Bradley T., Great Serpent.  Timeline 15(5):30-45, 1998.
  3. Milner, George R. The Moundbuilders: Ancient Peoples of Eastern North America. London, Thames & Hudson, 2005.