Difference between revisions of "Michikinikwa"

From Ohio History Central
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{{infobox
 
{{infobox
 
| image = [[File:Little Turtle.jpg]]
 
| image = [[File:Little Turtle.jpg]]
| caption = Reproduction of a portrait of Little Turtle, also known as Mich-I-kin-I-Qua, a war chief of the Miami Tribe, ca. 1790-1812. Little Turtle and Shawnee chief Tecumseh led the Miami and Shawnee people to resist white settlers in the western part of Ohio. They successfully defeated United States soldiers led by Josiah Harmar in October 1790 and soldiers led by Arthur St. Clair in 1791. An attack on Fort Recovery failed in 1794 and Little Turtle wanted to negotiate with the settlers. Other chiefs wanted to continue fighting. The Native Americans lost at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and in 1795 they signed the Treaty of Greene Ville ceding most of Ohio to the settlers.
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| caption = Reproduction of a portrait of Little Turtle, also  
 +
known as Mich-I-kin-I-Qua, a war chief of the Miami  
 +
Tribe, ca. 1790-1812. Little Turtle and Shawnee chief  
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Tecumseh led the Miami and Shawnee people to resist
 +
white settlers in the western part of Ohio. They  
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successfully defeated United States soldiers led by  
 +
Josiah Harmar in October 1790 and soldiers led by  
 +
Arthur St. Clair in 1791. An attack on Fort Recovery  
 +
failed in 1794 and Little Turtle wanted to negotiate  
 +
with the settlers. Other chiefs wanted to continue  
 +
fighting. The Native Americans lost at the Battle of  
 +
Fallen Timbers and in 1795 they signed the Treaty of  
 +
Greene Ville ceding most of Ohio to the settlers.
 +
 
 
}}
 
}}
 
<p>Little Turtle was a war leader of the Miami Indians. He was born in about 1752 twenty miles northwest of modern-day Fort Wayne, Indiana. His Native American name was Michikinikwa. Little is known of his life before the 1790s, although he did help the British in &nbsp;the American Revolution.</p>  
 
<p>Little Turtle was a war leader of the Miami Indians. He was born in about 1752 twenty miles northwest of modern-day Fort Wayne, Indiana. His Native American name was Michikinikwa. Little is known of his life before the 1790s, although he did help the British in &nbsp;the American Revolution.</p>  
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==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
<div class="seeAlsoText">
 
<div class="seeAlsoText">
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*[[Josiah Harmar]]
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*[[Arthur St. Clair]]
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*[[Tecumseh]]
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*[[Anthony Wayne]]
 
*[[American Revolution]]
 
*[[American Revolution]]
*[[Appalachian Mountains]]
 
 
*[[Battle of Fallen Timbers]]
 
*[[Battle of Fallen Timbers]]
*[[Fort Greene Ville]]
 
*[[Fort Recovery]]
 
*[[Greenville, Ohio]]
 
*[[Harmar's Defeat]]
 
*[[Josiah Harmar]]
 
 
*[[Miami Indians]]
 
*[[Miami Indians]]
*[[Northwest Territory]]
 
*[[Ohio Country]]
 
 
*[[Shawnee Indians]]
 
*[[Shawnee Indians]]
 
*[[Siege of Fort Recovery]]
 
*[[Siege of Fort Recovery]]
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*[[Northwest Territory]]
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*[[Ohio Country]]
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*[[Treaty of Paris (1783)]]
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*[[Harmar's Defeat]]
 
*[[St. Clair's Defeat]]
 
*[[St. Clair's Defeat]]
*[[Arthur St. Clair]]
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*[[Fort Recovery]]
*[[Tecumseh]]
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*[[Fort Greene Ville]]
*[[Tecumseh's Confederation]]
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*[[Treaty of Greeneville (1795)]]
 
*[[Treaty of Greeneville (1795)]]
*[[Treaty of Paris (1783)]]
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*[[Tecumseh's Confederation]]
*[[Anthony Wayne]]
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*[[Greenville, Ohio]]
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*[[Appalachian Mountains]]
 
</div>
 
</div>
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==References==
 
==References==
 
<div class="referencesText">
 
<div class="referencesText">
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#Young, Calvin M. <em>Little Turtle (Me-she-kin-no-quah): The Great Chief of the Miami Indian Nation</em><em>; Being a Sketch of His Life Together with that of Wm. Wells and Some Noted Descendants</em>. Greenville, OH: Calvin M. Young, 1917.
 
#Young, Calvin M. <em>Little Turtle (Me-she-kin-no-quah): The Great Chief of the Miami Indian Nation</em><em>; Being a Sketch of His Life Together with that of Wm. Wells and Some Noted Descendants</em>. Greenville, OH: Calvin M. Young, 1917.
 
</div>
 
</div>
[[Category:History People]][[Category:Exploration To Statehood]]
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[[Category:History People]][[Category:Exploration To Statehood]][[Category:American Indians]][[Category:Military]][[Category:Frontier Ohio]]
[[Category:American Indians]]
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[[Category:Frontier Ohio]]
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[[Category:Military]]
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Revision as of 15:15, 23 May 2013

Little Turtle.jpg
Reproduction of a portrait of Little Turtle, also known as Mich-I-kin-I-Qua, a war chief of the Miami Tribe, ca. 1790-1812. Little Turtle and Shawnee chief Tecumseh led the Miami and Shawnee people to resist white settlers in the western part of Ohio. They successfully defeated United States soldiers led by Josiah Harmar in October 1790 and soldiers led by Arthur St. Clair in 1791. An attack on Fort Recovery failed in 1794 and Little Turtle wanted to negotiate with the settlers. Other chiefs wanted to continue fighting. The Native Americans lost at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and in 1795 they signed the Treaty of

Greene Ville ceding most of Ohio to the settlers.

Little Turtle was a war leader of the Miami Indians. He was born in about 1752 twenty miles northwest of modern-day Fort Wayne, Indiana. His Native American name was Michikinikwa. Little is known of his life before the 1790s, although he did help the British in  the American Revolution.

With the Treaty of Paris (1783), England gave up all claims to the Ohio Country. Settlers rapidly came across the Appalachian Mountains to the Northwest Territory. Little Turtle played a leading role in Indian resistance to the newcomers. In 1790 General Josiah Harmar led 1,400 soldiers into land claimed by the Miami Indians and the Shawnee Indians. In October, Little Turtle and his followers, including the future Shawnee chief Tecumseh, succeeded in driving out Harmar's men. This battle became known as Harmar's Defeat. In 1791, General Arthur St. Clair led two thousand American soldiers against the natives in western Ohio. Once again, Little Turtle led the Indians to victory at a battle known as St. Clair's Defeat. This was one of the worst defeats ever sustained by the American military in their conflicts with Native Americans. During 1794, Little Turtle led attacks against supply trains belonging to the United States army. These trains were trying to supply the numerous forts that General Anthony Wayne had ordered built. They were to serve as staging areas for future campaigns against the Indians living in western Ohio.

Little Turtle also tried to seize Fort Recovery in 1794, but his men failed to do so. Following this defeat, Little Turtle realized that the British had no desire to help the Indians against Wayne's army. Little Turtle encouraged his followers to negotiate with the Americans. He understood that the Americans far outnumbered the Indians and had many more weapons.. Other native war leaders refused to listen, and insisted that Wayne's army must be fought .

Shortly after rejecting Little Turtle's call for peace, the Native Americans lost the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. In 1795, Indians living in western Ohio sent representatives to Fort Greene Ville where they met in council with the Americans. After lengthy discussion, they signed the Treaty of Greenville. The natives, including Little Turtle, agreed to give all but the northwestern corner of modern-day Ohio to the United States. Little Turtle refused to take up arms against the United States ever again. He became a celebrity among the American people. He visited many eastern cities and even met George Washington in 1797. He urged his fellow natives to keep the peace and also encouraged them to give up alcohol. During the early 1800s, he played an important role in preventing the Miami Indians from joining Tecumseh's Indian confederation. He died on July 14, 1812, in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

See Also

References

  1. Anson, Bert. The Miami Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.
  2. Carter, Harvey Lewis. The Life and Times of Little Turtle: First Sagamore of the Wabash. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
  3. Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
  4. Young, Calvin M. Little Turtle (Me-she-kin-no-quah): The Great Chief of the Miami Indian Nation; Being a Sketch of His Life Together with that of Wm. Wells and Some Noted Descendants. Greenville, OH: Calvin M. Young, 1917.