|Scientific Name:||Cardinalis cardinalis|
|Habitat:||Woodlands, brushy fields, thickets, fence rows, parks, and cities|
|Adult Weight:||2 - 3 oz.|
|Adult Body Length:||8 inches|
|Nesting Period:||April - August|
|Clutch Size:||3 - 4 per clutch|
|Life Expectancy:||1 year or less|
|Foods:||Seeds and insects|
Cardinals were uncommon in Ohio. They were seen only in the southern part of the state, along the Ohio River.
Cardinals began to expand their permanent range throughout Ohio by the late 1800s. J. M. Wheaton reported in 1882,
In [central Ohio] they are generally distributed during the breeding season, but in severe winters they collect in large companies in swamp thickets. In one such locality of about ten acres in extent, I have seen in an hour more than a hundred birds. Considerable numbers are trapped and sold . . . at one to two dollars per pair.
By the turn of the century, cardinals could be found throughout Ohio to Lake Erie. By 1910, they were nesting in southern Canada. Today, the cardinal is a permanent resident in all eighty-eight counties.
- Peterjohn, John. The Birds of Ohio; Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN; 1989.