Ohio Indian Wars
The Ohio Indian Wars were a series of struggles between settlers from the newly independent United States and Native American residents of the Ohio Country in the years after the American Revolution.
During the first part of the eighteenth century, French and British colonists began to migrate to modern-day Ohio. Each group sought to form alliances with American Indians in the region. With France's defeat in the French and Indian War, Great Britain acquired this territory in 1763. The British government attempted to improve relations with the natives by prohibiting white settlement in the Ohio Country. Great Britain's action resulted in part in the American Revolution. The Treaty of Paris (1783) brought the Revolution to a close and Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. In addition, the new nation secured all of the land east of the Mississippi River except for British possessions in Canada and Spanish territory in Florida.
The American Indians in the Ohio Country took no formal part in the treaty negotiations. Great Britain made little effort to include their native allies in the treaty's terms. Despite this, the British did not abandon the American Indians. They continued to trade guns and other European manufactured goods for native furs. The British hoped that the Indians, with English weapons, would stop the westward expansion by the newly independent Americans. Unfortunately for the natives, American settlers moved quickly into the Ohio Country at the end of the Revolution. After the signing of Treaty of Paris, American settlers faced few obstacles in moving to the Ohio Country other than from the Native Americans themselves. The conflicts that followed became known as the Ohio Indian Wars.
During the late 1780s, the Northwest Territory was a violent place as American settlers moved onto land that several groups of American Indians claimed as their own. The United States government lacked the funds to equip an army to deal with the Indian threat adequately. In spite of this, Henry Knox, the Secretary of War, requested that Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, establish a peaceful relationship between the settlers and the natives. St. Clair called for a meeting with native leaders to negotiate an agreement. The meeting took place at Fort Harmar and began on December 13, 1788. The natives present included representatives from the Wyandot Indians, the Delaware Indians, the Ottawa Indians, the Chippewa Indians, the Potawatomi Indians, and the Sauk Indians. The natives hoped that St. Clair would agree to establish an American Indian reservation consisting of the land west of the Muskingum River and north of the Ohio River. St. Clair refused and demanded that the Indian leaders agree to a reservation boundary established by the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785.
Under the Treaty of Fort McIntosh, the Indians were to relinquish their lands in southern and eastern Ohio. They were confined to the western corner of modern-day Ohio with a border roughly the Cuyahoga River on the east. A southern border extended from modern-day Akron west to the Tuscarawas River, south to Fort Laurens, then west to Pickawillany on the Miami River. A western border ran north from Pickawillany to the St. Mary's River and then to what is now Ft. Wayne, Indiana A northern border from Fort Wayne to Lake Erie followed the shore of the lake east to the Cuyahoga River. St. Clair told the Indians he would attack them if they refused to abide by the Treaty of Fort McIntosh. He also sought their friendship with three thousand dollars in presents. The Native American leaders signed the Treaty of Fort Harmar, which reiterated the terms of the Treaty of Fort McIntosh, on January 9, 1789.
The Treaty of Fort Harmar did little to stop the bloodshed between the Americans and the Indians. Many natives refused to honor the treaty, including the Shawnee Indians. They claimed that the groups represented at the treaty negotiations did not speak for the Shawnees. Warfare increased, especially in the western portions of modern-day Ohio.
Most Native Americans had been driven from the eastern portion of the state during the American Revolution, although many Indians still hunted in this area. In 1790, Josiah Harmar, commander of the American army in the Northwest Territory, was stationed at Fort Washington (present-day Cincinnati, Ohio). Henry Knox, the Secretary of War, ordered Harmar to end the threat of Indian attack in western Ohio. Harmar marched from Fort Washington with 320 regular soldiers and roughly 1,100 militiamen—primarily from Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The militiamen were poorly trained. Many did not know how to correctly load and fire a musket. Some did not even have a gun. Harmar was to destroy the native villages near modern-day Fort Wayne, Indiana. He intended to attack the Miami Indians, the Shawnee Indians, and the Delaware Indians, along with other natives located in western Ohio.
The natives fled their villages as Harmar's army approached. The Americans burned several villages, but the Indians regrouped. On October 20, the natives, led by Little Turtle, attacked a detachment from Harmar's army led by Colonel John Hardin. Hardin's force consisted of several hundred militiamen and a few regular soldiers. Hardin led his men into an ambush. Most of the militiamen fled the battle. The regular soldiers put up a brief resistance, but the natives killed many of them. Some of the retreating militiamen did not stop until they crossed the Ohio River into Kentucky. Harmar sent another detachment after Little Turtle's warriors two days later. Once again, the natives inflicted heavy casualties upon the Americans. Harmar immediately retreated to the safety of Fort Washington. He had lost 183 men killed or missing in this campaign. It became known as Harmar's Defeat.
Harmar's actions in western Ohio only heightened tensions between the white settlers and the Indians. Following Harmar's defeat, native attacks against settlers increased. In 1791, Arthur St. Clair led another campaign against the natives in western Ohio, hoping to succeed where Harmar had failed. To protect settlers and to force the Indians to abide by the Treaty of Fort Harmar, Arthur St. Clair ordered the construction of forts in what is now western Ohio. St. Clair moved against the Indians living near present-day Ft. Wayne Indiana. His men left Fort Washington on September 17. The men marched twenty miles in two days and then built Fort Hamilton. St. Clair's army then advanced forty-five miles northward, where his men built Fort Jefferson. Leading primarily untrained militiamen, St. Clair faced problems with desertion from the beginning of his campaign. Although it was still early fall, his men faced cold temperatures, rain and snowfall. St. Clair also had a difficult time keeping his soldiers supplied with food. His men became demoralized. Despite these problems, St. Clair continued to advance against the Miami Indians. By November 3, his men had arrived on the banks of the Wabash River, near some of the Miami villages.
Little Turtle led his warriors against the Americans on the morning of November 4. Many of the militiamen under St. Clair immediately fled. St. Clair led the regular soldiers in a bayonet charge. St. Clair had two horses shot out from under him. Several bullets passed through his clothing and one took off a lock of his hair. The Indians surrounded the American camp. After three hours of fighting, the American regulars fought through the Indian lines and began a lengthy retreat. The survivors reached Fort Jefferson late that afternoon and evening. With limited quantities of food and supplies at Fort Jefferson, St. Clair ordered his forces to Fort Washington. The Indians had soundly defeated St. Clair's army. President George Washington demanded that St. Clair resign from the army. St. Clair did so on April 7, 1792, but remained governor of the Northwest Territory. He still faced problems with the natives. St. Clair's Defeat was one of the worst in the history of the United States Army at the hands of Native Americans.
In 1792, President George Washington appointed Anthony Wayne as the commander of the United States Army of the Northwest. The major purpose of this army was to defend American settlers from Indian attack. Washington hoped that Wayne would prove more successful than Harmar and St. Clair. Wayne arrived at Fort Washington with additional troops in May 1793. Wayne wanted to move against the natives immediately, but small pox and influenza weakened his men too severely. In October, Wayne finally left the Cincinnati area and headed to Fort Jefferson. He proceeded six miles to the north of Fort Jefferson and ordered the construction of Fort Greene Ville. His army remained there during the winter of 1793-1794. He also ordered his men to build Fort Recovery on the site of St. Clair's Defeat.
With St. Clair advancing into native territory, tensions escalated between the Americans and the Indians during the summer of 1794. On June 30, 1,500 Shawnee Indians, Miami Indians, Delaware Indians, Ottawa Indians, and Ojibwa Indians led by Little Turtle attacked a supply train leaving Fort Recovery for Fort Greene Ville. In late July, Wayne moved into the heart of Indian Territory. In early August, he had his men construct Fort Defiance to protect his army as well as to serve as a supply depot. During this time period, Wayne's men also destroyed native villages and crops. Believing that the Indians should seek peace, Little Turtle refused to lead the tribes into battle and deferred to Blue Jacket, a Shawnee leader. As Wayne moved toward the Maumee River, the Indians prepared to attack him at an area known as Fallen Timbers. It was a place where a tornado had knocked down many trees. The Indians expected the Americans to arrive on August 19, but the white soldiers did not arrive until the next day. The natives fasted before the battle to avoid having food in their stomachs. The likelihood of infection increased if a person was wounded in the stomach and there was food in it. By August 20, the natives were weak from hunger.
Although the Indians used the fallen trees for cover, Wayne's men quickly drove the Indians from the battlefield. The Americans had thirty-three men killed and roughly one hundred wounded, while the Indians lost approximately twice that number. The fight became known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Blue Jacket's followers retreated to Fort Miamis, hoping that the British would provide them with protection and assistance against Wayne's army. The English refused. Wayne followed the natives to the fort. Upon his arrival, Wayne ordered the British to evacuate the Northwest Territory. The British commander refused, and Wayne decided to withdraw to Fort Greene Ville.
For the next year, Wayne stayed at Fort Greene Ville, negotiating a treaty with the Ohio Indians. The natives realized that they were at a serious disadvantage with the Americans, especially because of Great Britain's refusal to support the Indians. On August 3, 1795, the Treaty of Greeneville was signed. Representatives from the Miami Indians, the Wyandot Indians, the Shawnee Indians, the Delaware Indians, and several other groups of native people agreed to move to the northwestern corner of what is present-day Ohio.
Not all Native Americans agreed with the Treaty of Greeneville, and bloodshed continued to dominate the region for the next twenty years as Americans and natives struggled for control. Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader, posed the most serious threat to white settlement of the Northwest Territory and the state of Ohio during this period. Tecumseh decided that the best way to stop white advancement was to form a confederacy of Indian nations west of the Appalachian Mountains. Tecumseh believed that no single group owned the land and that only all Native Americans together could turn land over to the whites He also believed that, if the Indians united together, they would have a better chance militarily against the Americans,
In his quest, Tecumseh received assistance from his younger brother Tenskwatawa. Known as the Prophet, Tenskwatawa believed that the natives had to end their reliance on American goods, such as alcohol, iron cookware, and guns. The Indians had angered the Master of Life by becoming dependent on these items. If they returned to native customs, the Master of Life would reward his followers by driving the Americans from their land. Many Indians found the Prophet's message appealing and began to gather at his village, Prophetstown, in the Indiana Territory.
Tecumseh used his brother's influence to convince the natives to put aside their traditional differences and unite together against the whites. He also visited many of the Native Americans west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River seeking additional people to join his confederation. While most tribes listened to Tecumseh's proposal, many rejected his idea. This especially was true of Indians in modern-day Tennessee, Georgia, and Mississippi. Many of these natives, unlike those in the Ohio River Valley, faced no real encroachment on their lands by Americans. They also accepted white products and customs and did not want to lose access to these goods. Tecumseh had more success in Ohio, Kentucky, and the Indiana Territory. These were areas that whites had attempted to settle since before the French and Indian War.
Tecumseh's Confederacy failed. Many Indians refused to end their trade and friendship with the Americans. The whites also greatly outnumbered the Indians and had greater access to firearms and ammunition. As Tecumseh's followers began to converge at Prophetstown, he also could not provide them with adequate food and shelter. To acquire white goods, the natives had engaged in the fur trade with the Americans. This trade greatly diminished the animal population and left the Indians with less to eat.
In 1811, William Henry Harrison led an American army against Prophetstown. Tecumseh was away seeking allies in the southern part of the United States. He left his brother with orders not to attack the Americans. The Prophet told his followers that the Master of Life would prevent the Americans' bullets from hurting them. The struggle that followed was called the Battle of Tippecanoe. When Tecumseh returned, Prophetstown no longer existed. The natives had abandoned it, and Harrison had destroyed it. Many of Tecumseh's followers, hungry and defeated, returned to their former villages. Tecumseh did try to recreate his confederacy, but he had only limited success. Tecumseh's dream ended in 1813, with his death at the Battle of the Thames, during the War of 1812.
With Tecumseh's death, Native American resistance in Ohio came to an end. Natives in the state agreed to abide by the terms of the Treaty of Greeneville. Over the next several years, various groups signed additional treaties relinquishing their remaining territory. By 1843, the last large group of Native Americans in Ohio had agreed to give up their land.