Difference between revisions of "Seneca-Cayuga"

 
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| image = [[File:OHS_AL05183.jpg]]
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<p>The Seneca-Cayuga, also referred to as the Ohio Seneca or Ohio Cayuga, is an American Indian Tribe that settled in the Sandusky and Cayuga River regions of northeastern Ohio in the 1740s and 50s. The Seneca-Cayuga people were historically referred to by non-natives as the “Mingo,” a derogatory term that is considered offensive today. </p>
| caption = Photographic reproduction of a print depicting James Logan (1725-1780), a chief of the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe. Logan initially encouraged his people not to attack whites who settled in the Ohio country, but after family members were killed by settlers in 1774, he wanted to avenge their deaths and began raiding villages in what is now western Pennsylvania. While his allies the Shawnee attempted to make peace with the settlers, Logan continued to fight until his death around 1780.
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<p>The Seneca was one of the six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, an alliance of six Iroquoian-speaking tribes including the Seneca, Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Tuscarora Nations. The Seneca first came to Ohio in the 1740s, a time when many American Indian tribes who were forced to flee the Ohio Country during the Beaver Wars were returning to Ohio, perhaps including the Shawnee and Wyandotte. The Beaver Wars was a campaign during which the Iroquois fought other American Indian groups, including those in the Ohio Country, for their lands and territories in order to gain access to new beaver populations. During this period, new tribes were settling in Ohio as well, including the Delaware (Lenape) and Miami (Myaamia). By 1750, the Seneca had left the Iroquois homeland of upstate New York and migrated to the Ohio Country, where they joined members of the Cayuga nation who lived along the Sandusky. In the 1760s, the Ohio Seneca lived in eastern Ohio near Steubenville. By the early 1770s, they had moved to central Ohio. One of their villages was on the banks of the Scioto River at the site of present-day Columbus. </p>
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<p>Although sources vary in identifying tribes that ultimately made up the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe, today’s Seneca-Cayuga Nation believes, according to the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe’s website, that once the Seneca left the Iroquois Confederacy and settled in northeastern Ohio, members of the Erie, Conestoga, Cayuga, Oneida, Mohawk, Onondaga, Tuscarora, and Wyandotte Tribes joined the Seneca to make up the Seneca-Cayuga Nation. In 1832, the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe, then referred to as the Seneca of Sandusky due to their settlement on the Sandusky River, ceded 40,000 acres of their land to the United States government as part of a treaty, and in exchange received 67,000 acres of land in Indian Territory, a roughly 15 x 7 mile plot of land, bound by Cherokee territory to the south and west, Wyandotte territory to the north, and the Missouri state line to the east. </p>
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<p>Though the United States government pressured many members of the Ohio Seneca and other American Indian groups living in Oklahoma to cease claims to tribal identity and tribally-held lands in the early 20th century, the Seneca, Cayuga, and Ohio Seneca gained federal recognition as the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma in 1937, with the passage of the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act. Two other bands of Seneca are federally recognized within the state of New York; Seneca Nation of New York and the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians of New York. </p>
<p>The group historically known as the Ohio Seneca or Ohio Cayuga, and sometimes by the deragatory exonym "Mingo," were a small group of Ohio-based people related to the Iroquois confederacy. It should be noted that the term "Mingo" was an outsider's name applied by Anglo-American settlers in the Ohio Valley, based on Eastern Algonquian names for Iroquois-speaking peoples. The term The group consisted of members of both the Seneca and Cayuga nations. By 1750, the Ohio Seneca had left the Iroquois homeland in the state of New York and migrated to the Ohio Country, where they joined members of the Cayuga nation, who lived in a reservation along the Sandusky. In the 1760s, the Ohio Seneca lived in eastern Ohio near Steubenville. By the early 1770s, they had moved to central Ohio. One of their villages was on the banks of the Scioto River at the site of modern-day Columbus.</p>  
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<p>Captain William Crawford led an attack against a Ohio Seneca village on the Scioto River near what is now downtown Columbus, Ohio, at the close of Lord Dunmore's War in 1774. By the 1800s, the Ohio Seneca had villages along the Sandusky River as well as at Lewistown. The Ohio Seneca began to live with other tribes, hoping that together they would be able to stop the westward expansion of white settlers. Some Ohio Seneca natives lived with the Miami, while others lived with the Shawnee. In 1831, the United States forced the Ohio Seneca to sell their land, and the natives were forced to migrate to reservations in the West. The nation had initially been assigned lands within the Cherokee Reservation in Oklahoma, and were later reassigned a joint reservatio with the Shawnee, who had been forced to migrate to the same area. During the upheavals of the Civil War, The Ohio Seneca joined other Seneca and Cayuga tribes on the Neosho Reservation in Kansas. The consolidated nations were again forced to relocate to new reservations in Oklahoma later in the 19th century. Though the U.S. government pressured many members of the Ohio Seneca and other American Indian groups living in Oklahoma to cease claims to tribal identity and tribally-held lands under assimilationist schemes in the early 20th century, the Seneca, Cayuga and Ohio Seneca gained federal recognition as the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma in 1937, with the passage of the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act. Two other bands of Senecan people are federally recognized within the state of New York.</p> 
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<p>Logan was a famous leader of the Ohio Seneca natives. </p>
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==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
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==References==
 
==References==
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#Alder, Henry Clay. <em>A History of Jonathan Alder; His Captivity and Life with the Indians.</em> Ed. Larry L. Nelson. University of Akron Press: Akron, OH, 2002.
#Hurt, R. Douglas. <em>The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830</em>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
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#Hurt, Douglas A. <em>The Ohio Frontier; Crucible of the Northwest, 1720-1830.</em> Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1996.
</div>
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#May, Jon D. <em>“Seneca-Cayuga.”</em> Oklahoma Historical Society. Last updated 2009. Accessed June 26, 2017. http://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=SE018
[[Category:History Groups]][[Category:Exploration To Statehood]][[Category:American Indians]][[Category:Government and Politics]][[Category:Military]][[Category:Frontier Ohio]]
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#Wright, Muriel H. <em>“A Guide to the Indian Tribes of OK: Seneca.”</em> Seneca-Cayuga Nation. Accessed June 26, 2017. http://sctribe.com/history/a-guide-to-the-indian-tribes-of-ok-excerpts/

Latest revision as of 17:46, 19 July 2019

The Seneca-Cayuga, also referred to as the Ohio Seneca or Ohio Cayuga, is an American Indian Tribe that settled in the Sandusky and Cayuga River regions of northeastern Ohio in the 1740s and 50s. The Seneca-Cayuga people were historically referred to by non-natives as the “Mingo,” a derogatory term that is considered offensive today.

The Seneca was one of the six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, an alliance of six Iroquoian-speaking tribes including the Seneca, Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Tuscarora Nations. The Seneca first came to Ohio in the 1740s, a time when many American Indian tribes who were forced to flee the Ohio Country during the Beaver Wars were returning to Ohio, perhaps including the Shawnee and Wyandotte. The Beaver Wars was a campaign during which the Iroquois fought other American Indian groups, including those in the Ohio Country, for their lands and territories in order to gain access to new beaver populations. During this period, new tribes were settling in Ohio as well, including the Delaware (Lenape) and Miami (Myaamia). By 1750, the Seneca had left the Iroquois homeland of upstate New York and migrated to the Ohio Country, where they joined members of the Cayuga nation who lived along the Sandusky. In the 1760s, the Ohio Seneca lived in eastern Ohio near Steubenville. By the early 1770s, they had moved to central Ohio. One of their villages was on the banks of the Scioto River at the site of present-day Columbus.

Although sources vary in identifying tribes that ultimately made up the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe, today’s Seneca-Cayuga Nation believes, according to the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe’s website, that once the Seneca left the Iroquois Confederacy and settled in northeastern Ohio, members of the Erie, Conestoga, Cayuga, Oneida, Mohawk, Onondaga, Tuscarora, and Wyandotte Tribes joined the Seneca to make up the Seneca-Cayuga Nation. In 1832, the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe, then referred to as the Seneca of Sandusky due to their settlement on the Sandusky River, ceded 40,000 acres of their land to the United States government as part of a treaty, and in exchange received 67,000 acres of land in Indian Territory, a roughly 15 x 7 mile plot of land, bound by Cherokee territory to the south and west, Wyandotte territory to the north, and the Missouri state line to the east.

Though the United States government pressured many members of the Ohio Seneca and other American Indian groups living in Oklahoma to cease claims to tribal identity and tribally-held lands in the early 20th century, the Seneca, Cayuga, and Ohio Seneca gained federal recognition as the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma in 1937, with the passage of the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act. Two other bands of Seneca are federally recognized within the state of New York; Seneca Nation of New York and the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians of New York.

See Also

References

  1. Alder, Henry Clay. A History of Jonathan Alder; His Captivity and Life with the Indians. Ed. Larry L. Nelson. University of Akron Press: Akron, OH, 2002.
  2. Hurt, Douglas A. The Ohio Frontier; Crucible of the Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1996.
  3. May, Jon D. “Seneca-Cayuga.” Oklahoma Historical Society. Last updated 2009. Accessed June 26, 2017. http://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=SE018
  4. Wright, Muriel H. “A Guide to the Indian Tribes of OK: Seneca.” Seneca-Cayuga Nation. Accessed June 26, 2017. http://sctribe.com/history/a-guide-to-the-indian-tribes-of-ok-excerpts/