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Isolationists existed across the United States, including in Ohio. One of the most famous Ohioans to endorse this policy was Norman Thomas. Thomas was the Socialist Party's candidate for the U.S. presidency on six different occasions. He believed that involvement in international affairs would result in the needless deaths of American soldiers, the loss of jobs within the United States, and the weakening of America's military defenses and its economy. To propagate these isolationistic ideas, Thomas helped to establish the America First Committee, an organization that encouraged the United States government and American business to focus their activities on the United States rather than on other countries. Thomas, himself, objected to United States involvement in World War I, but after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, he did support American entry into World War II. With the advent of the Cold War in the late 1940s, Thomas denounced communism, but he also encouraged the United States to return to isolationism.
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