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African Americans

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Numerous '''African Americans''' have resided in Ohio. Today, African-American Ohioans continue to enhance Ohio's cultural and social landscape.
Prior to becoming a state, very few African Americans resided in Ohio. In 1800, only 337 African Americans lived in the area. Most of these people were free, but undoubtedly, a small number of them were slaves. African Americans hovered near two percent of Ohio's total population throughout the first half of the nineteenth century. By 1810, 1,890 blacks called Ohio home, increasing to 4,723 a decade later. By 1860, 36,700 African Americans resided in the state. Over the years they have made significant contributions to the state, such as their service in the factories during the First World War. Ohio's first constitution, the Ohio Constitution of 1803, outlawed slavery. This was a requirement of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Despite this legal protection, some African American Ohioans were actually slaves. Slave owners lived especially in southern Ohio. If a sheriff or some other law enforcement official accused the white man of violating the law, the slave owner would simply transport his slave or slaves across the Ohio River to the slave holding state of Kentucky.  The vast majority of African American Ohioans were free. Prior to statehood and the growth of cities, many of these people lived with friendly Native American tribes. Most African Americans in the state had run away from slave states in the South. Although slavery was banned in Ohio, slave owners still had the right under the United States Constitution to retrieve their runaway slaves. Many African Americans hoped that whites, already fearful of the Native Americans, would not look for them among the natives. During the late 1700s and the early 1800s, many African Americans settled in Upper Sandusky, a village of the Wyandot natives. As cities such as Cleveland and Cincinnati began to grow, many African Americans moved to these locations. Most of them had little money and could not afford to purchase land to become farmers. They hoped to acquire jobs in the cities by becoming factory workers or skilled artisans. The less fortunate among them took poorer paying jobs as nannies, housekeepers, waiters, waitresses, and day laborers. In the cities, African Americans faced racism and most usually lived in the same neighborhoods. They did this partly out of fear of slave owners coming to the area and trying to return them to slavery, and because whites did not want African Americans living in their parts of the cities. Race riots sometimes occurred, especially if whites feared that African Americans were gaining too much power or infringing upon white opportunities. In 1829 one such riot occurred in Cincinnati because Irish immigrants disliked economic competition from the African-American community. The next year, Portsmouth whites forced approximately eighty African Americans from the community. Many African Americans chose to leave Ohio and moved to such settlements as Wilberforce in Canada. There they did not have to worry about slave owners coming to claim them as runaways. Sometimes African Americans formed their own towns. Such was the case for Carthagena in Mercer County. During the 1840s, whites drove them from the area. Similar events occurred in the Scioto River Valley in the early 1800s. Racism towards African Americans clearly existed in Ohio during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. After statehood, government officials enacted numerous laws denying blacks their rights. The state constitutional convention prohibited African-American men from voting. This right failed to reach approval by a single vote. Edward Tiffin cast the deciding vote. Tiffin and his brother-in-law, Thomas Worthington, had both owned slaves prior to moving to Ohio from Virginia. They freed their slaves, but many of these African Americans followed their former owners to Ohio and continued to work for them as hired hands. Women of all races could not vote in Ohio. Black men could not serve in the militia, serve on juries, testify in court against whites, receive assistance at the "poor house," or send their children to public school. In 1804, the Ohio General Assembly, hoping to prevent any other African Americans from moving to the state, implemented an ordinance requiring all blacks to post a bond of five hundred dollars to insure their good conduct. Despite the racism that African Americans endured, many black Ohioans favored life in the state over being slaves in the South.
Ohio's first constitutionFortunately for African Americans, the Ohio Constitution of 1803, outlawed slavery. This was American Civil War fought between 1861 and 1865 resulted in a requirement of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787Union victory. Despite During this legal protectionconflict, some black Ohioans were actually President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves. Slaveowners lived especially in southern Ohiostates in rebellion on January 1, 1863. If Lincoln issued this document as a sheriff or some other law enforcement official accused war measure hoping that by freeing the white man of violating slaves the law, the slaveowner South would simply transport his African American property across have a more difficult time continuing the Ohio River to struggle. While the slaveholding state Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves everywhere, it was only a matter of Kentuckytime before the institution ended.
The vast majority of black Ohioans were freeIn 1865 the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution ended slavery in the United States. Prior The Fourteenth Amendment granted equal protection under the law to statehood African Americans in 1867 and in 1870 the growth of cities, many of these people lived with friendly Native Fifteenth Amendment gave African-American tribesmen the right to vote. Most blacks in Ohioans supported the state had run away from slave states in Thirteenth Amendment, but passage of the South. Although slavery Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments was banned in much more difficult. The Ohio, slaveowners still had government actually approved the right under the United States Constitution to retrieve their runaway propertyFourteenth Amendment in 1867 and then revoked its approval in 1868. Many African Americans hoped that whites, already fearful The Ohio legislature did not reauthorize its approval of this amendment until 2003. The Fifteenth Amendment did pass the IndiansOhio legislature in 1870, would not look for them among but by just one vote in the natives. During the late 1700s Ohio Senate and two votes in the early 1800sOhio House, many African Americans settled illustrating the racism that continued to exist in Upper Sandusky, a village of the Wyandot Indiansstate.
As cities such as Cleveland and Cincinnati began to growDuring the first decades of the twentieth century, many Ohio's African Americans moved to these locations-American population soared. Most blacks had little money and could not afford to purchase land to become farmers. They hoped to acquire jobs The Great Migration began in the cities, including becoming factory workers or skilled artisans. Less fortunate blacks took poorer paying jobs as nannies, housekeepers, waiters, waitresses, 1910s and day laborers. In the cities, African Americans faced racism. Most blacks usually lived continued at least through World War II in the same neighborhoodsearly 1940s. They did During this partly out thirty-year period, hundreds of fear thousands of slaveowners coming to the area and trying to return them to slavery and because whites did not want African Americans living in their parts of moved from the citiesSouth to the North. Race riots sometimes occurredIn the South, especially if whites feared that most African Americans were gaining too much power or infringing upon white had few rights and opportunities. In 1829Most of these people worked as sharecroppers, one such riot occurred in Cincinnatitenant farmers, because Irish immigrants disliked economic competition from the African-American communityor as day laborers. The next yearWith the outbreak of World War I, Portsmouth whites forced approximately eighty blacks from numerous jobs opened in Northern factories as white men enlisted in the community. Many African Americans chose to leave Ohio United States military and moved were sent to such settlements as Wilberforce in Canada. There, blacks did not have Europe to worry about slaveowners coming to claim them as their runaway propertyfight. Sometimes While some African Americans formed their own towns. Such was the case for Carthagena -American men also enlisted in Mercer County. During the 1840sarmed forces, whites drove them from many others migrated to the areaNorth to fill these factory positions. The same type of event occurred in Estimates vary, but perhaps as many as 500,000 blacks moved from the Scioto River Valley in South to the North during the 1910s and the early 1800s1920s.
Racism towards Thousands of African Americans clearly existed who participated in the Great Migration settled in Ohio during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. After statehood, government officials enacted numerous laws denying blacks their rights. The state constitutional convention prohibited African-American men from voting. This right failed to reach approval by a single vote. Edward Tiffin cast They provided businesses in the deciding vote. Tiffin state's industrial centers, including Cleveland, Youngstown, Toledo, and his brother-in-lawAkron, Thomas Worthingtonamong other cities, had both owned slaves prior to moving to Ohio from Virginiawith workers. They freed their slavesIn 1920, but many of these African Americans followed made up only three percent of Ohio's population, but their former owners numbers increased dramatically enough over the next decade to Ohio and continued have risen to work for them as hired hands. Women five percent of all races could not vote the population by 1930. The growing black population in Ohiodramatically altered the state. Black men could not serve Most African Americans were forced to live in segregated communities, separate from the militia, serve on jurieswhites. Cities experienced a tremendous building boom during the 1910s and 1920s. For example, testify in court against whitesa study of housing in Akron completed in 1939, receive assistance at it was determined that sixty percent of the "poor house," city houses were constructed between 1914 and send their children to public school. In 18041924, when the Great Migration was at its peak. Race riots occurred in Ohio General Assemblyand other Northern states, hoping to prevent any other African Americans from moving as some whites feared that they would lose jobs to the statemigrants, implemented an ordinance requiring all blacks who were commonly willing to post a bond of five hundred dollars to insure their good conductwork for less than other people were. Despite the racism problems that African Americans endured, many black Ohioans favored life faced in the state rather North, the racism that they endured tended to be less overt than lives as slaves in that of the South. The Great Migration did create new opportunity and hope for the blacks who migrated northwards, but true equality did not result in the 1910s, the 1920s, the 1930s, nor the 1940s.
Fortunately for Following World War II, many African Americans, and whites united to protest the American Civil War occurred from 1861 until 1865, racism and discrimination that existed in the North emerged victoriousUnited States. During Before this conflict, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves point in areas in rebellion on January 1time, 1863smaller numbers of blacks and whites had fought for equality, but with World War II's conclusion a more organized movement - the Civil Rights Movement - arose. Lincoln issued There were several reasons why this document as movement developed when it did, a war measureprominent reason being the fact that hundreds of thousands of African Americans served their country during World War II. They discovered that racial discrimination was not nearly as oppressive in European countries like Great Britain and France. For the first time, hoping they realized thatthe United States could become a land without racial discrimination. Another primary reason for the growth of the Civil Rights Movement at the end of World War II was the G.I. Bill. To help veterans from World War II readjust to life after returning home, by freeing the slavesfederal government helped offset the cost of a college education. Thousands of African-American veterans took advantage of this benefit, only to discover upon graduating from college that whites received the South would better-paying jobs. Many African Americans took jobs that they could have attained without a more difficult time continuing the strugglefour-year college degree. While Unhappy that the Emancipation Proclamation United States supposedly represented freedom and equality but did not free slaves everywheretruly provide these items to all people, it was only many African Americans and their white supporters thus created a matter of time before the institution endedmuch more organized movement to attain equality.
In 1865The Civil Rights Movement culminated in 1964 and 1965, with the Thirteenth Amendment to federal government's passage of the United States Constitution ended slavery in Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the United StatesVoting Rights Act of 1965. The Fourteenth Amendment granted These two federal laws outlawed segregation, guaranteed African Americans equal protection under the law to African Americans in 1867, and in 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment gave truly secured African-American men and women the right to vote. Most Ohioans supported the Thirteenth AmendmentHowever, but passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments Civil Rights Movement was much more difficultnot over. The Ohio government actually approved Many activists continued to urge peaceful demonstrations to protest the Fourteenth Amendment in 1867 and then revoked its approval in 1868lack of equal pay for equal work for African Americans with whites. The Ohio legislature did not reauthorize its approval They also sought to improve educational opportunities for people of this amendment until 2003all races. The Fifteenth Amendment did pass the Ohio legislature in 1870Civil Rights Movement, but by just one vote in the Ohio Senate and two votes in the Ohio Househowever, illustrating began to change. Some African Americans, especially younger ones, began to reject these calls for non-violent protests. These people wanted changes to occur much more quickly. They demanded action now, rather than the racism slower changes that continued to exist in usually came from peaceful demonstrations. By 1965, the stateCivil Rights Movement had divided between the followers of Martin Luther King, Jr., who advocated peaceful protest, and generally younger and more violent African Americans.
During While most people associate the first decades of Civil Rights Movement with the twentieth century, Ohio's struggle to provide African-American population soared. The Great Migration began Americans living in the 1910s and continued at least through World War II in the early 1940sSouthern United States with equal opportunities with whites, this reform era encompassed much more. During this thirty-year periodthe 1950s and 1960s, hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved from living in the South to northern portion of the North. In the South, most African Americans had few rights United States also experienced racism and opportunities. Most of discrimination, although generally the problems that these people worked endured were not as sharecroppers, tenant farmers, or oppressive as day laborers. With World War I's outbreak, numerous jobs opened in Northern factories as white men enlisted those that African Americans faced in the United States military and were sent to Europe to fightSouth. While some Many African-American men also enlisted and white Ohioans actively sought to reform the South, joining organizations, such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Congress on Racial Equality, and participating in protests across the armed forcesSouth, many others migrated including the Freedom Summer Project of 1964. Other Northern activists also sought to end racism in the North to fill these factory positions, including in Ohio. Estimates varyFor example, but perhaps as many as 500during the 1960s and 1970s,000 blacks moved from the South United Freedom Movement sought to desegregate schools in Cleveland, Ohio. Partly due to pressure from Civil Rights activists, the North during Ohio government implemented the 1910s Ohio Civil Rights Act of 1959, which was to "prevent and eliminate the early 1920spractice of discrimination in employment against persons because of their race, color, religion, national origin, or ancestry." It also was to guarantee all people fair access to public facilities and private businesses. The Ohio Civil Rights Act established the Ohio Civil Rights Commission to enforce these stipulations, helping to eliminate discrimination in Ohio.
Thousands Thanks to the efforts of Civil Rights activists, today African Americans who participated enjoy more opportunities than at any other point in the Great Migration settled in OhioUnited States history. They provided businesses in the state's industrial centers, including Cleveland, Youngstown, Toledo, and Akron, among other cities, with workers. In 1920, African Americans made up only three percent of Ohio's populationRacism still exists, but their numbers increased dramatically enough slowly its hold over the next decade to have risen to five percent of the population by 1930American society has eroded. The growing black population in Ohio dramatically altered the stateThat said true equality does not necessarily exist even today. Most African Americans were forced by racism Protests continue to live in segregated communities, separate from arise across the whites. In additionUnited States, cities experienced a tremendous building boom during the 1910s and 1920sincluding in Ohio. For exampleAs recently as 2001, in a study of housing in Akron completed in 1939, it was determined that sixty percent of the city houses were constructed between 1914 and 1924, when the Great Migration was at its peak. Race race riots also have occurred in Ohio and other Northern statesCincinnati, as some whites feared that they would lose jobs to illustrating the migrants, who commonly were willing to work for less than other people were. Despite the problems that African Americans faced in the North, the racism that they endured tended to be less overt than that perceived or actual racist sentiments of the South. The Great Migration did create new opportunity and hope for the blacks who migrated northwards, but true equality did not result in the 1910s, the 1920s, the 1930s, nor the 1940ssome Ohioans.
Following World War II, many African Americans and whites united to protest the racism and discrimination that existed in the United States. Before this point in time, smaller number of blacks and whites had fought for equality, but with World War II's conclusion a more organized movement - the Civil Rights Movement - arose. There were several reasons why this movement developed at World War II's conclusion. Among the more prominent reasons was the fact that hundreds of thousands of African Americans served their country during World War II. They discovered that racial discrimination was not nearly as oppressive in European countries like Great Britain and France. For the first time, they realized that the United States could become a land without racial discrimination. Another primary reason for the growth of the Civil Rights Movement at the end of World War II was the G.I. Bill. To help veterans from World War II readjust to life after returning home, the federal government helped offset the cost of a college education. Thousands of African-American veterans took advantage of this benefit, only to discover upon graduating from college that whites received the better-paying jobs. Many African Americans took jobs that they could have attained without a four-year college degree. Unhappy that the United States supposedly represented freedom and equality but did not truly provide these items to all people, many African Americans and their white supporters thus created a much more organized movement to attain equality.
The Civil Rights Movement culminated in 1964 and 1965, with the federal government's passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. These two federal laws outlawed segregation, guaranteed African Americans equal protection under the law, and truly secured black men and women the right to vote. However, the Civil Rights Movement was not over. Many activists continued to urge peaceful demonstrations to protest the lack of equal pay for equal work for African Americans with whites. They also sought to improve educational opportunities for people of all races. The Civil Rights Movement, however, began to change. Some African Americans, especially younger ones, began to reject these calls for non-violent protests. These people wanted changes to occur much more quickly. They demanded action now, rather than the slower changes that usually came from peaceful demonstrations. By 1965, the Civil Rights Movement had divided between the followers of Martin Luther King, Jr., who advocated peaceful protest, and generally younger and more violent African Americans.
While most people associate the Civil Rights Movement with the struggle to provide African Americans living in the Southern United States with equal opportunities with whites, this reform era encompassed much more. During the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans living in the northern portion of the United States also experienced racism and discrimination, although generally the problems that these people endured were not as oppressive as those that African Americans faced in the South. Many white and black Ohioans actively sought to reform the South, joining organizations, such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Congress on Racial Equality, and participating in protests across the South, including the Freedom Summer Project of 1964. Other Northern activists also sought to end racism in the North, including in Ohio. For example, during the 1960s and 1970s, the United Freedom Movement sought to desegregate schools in Cleveland, Ohio. Partly due to pressure from Civil Rights activists, the Ohio government implemented the Ohio Civil Rights Act of 1959, which was to "prevent and eliminate the practice of discrimination in employment against persons because of their race, color, religion, national origin, or ancestry." It also was to guarantee all people fair access to public facilities and private businesses. The Ohio Civil Rights Act established the Ohio Civil Rights Commission to enforce these stipulations, helping to eliminate discrimination in Ohio.
Thanks to the efforts of Civil Rights activists, today, African Americans enjoy more opportunities than at any other point in United States history. Racism still exists, but slowly, its hold over American society has eroded. That said, true equality does not necessarily exist even today. Protests continue to arise across the United States, including in Ohio. As recently as 2001, race riots have occurred in Cincinnati, illustrating the perceived or actual racist sentiments of some Ohioans.
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