Squaw Campaign

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<p>In 1778, General Edward Hand, the American military commander at Fort Pitt, decided to punish launched a war of retaliation against the Mingo Indians Seneca-Cayuga people living in the Ohio Country for siding their alliance with the British. The English British had reportedly provided the Mingos Ohio Seneca-Cayuga with a large amount of weapons and ammunition with which to attack the Americansdefend themselves against invading Anglo-American settlers. Hand led five hundred militiamen against the MingosSeneca-Cayuga. Simon Girty participated in the campaign as both a guide and interpreter for the Anglo-Americans. Hand's men failed to locate any nativesAmerican Indians. Seeing that his men were hungry, tired, and cold, Hand ordered a return to Fort Pitt. On the way back, they came across a small Lenape (Delaware) village of Delaware Indians. Among the Delawares Lenape were family members of Captain Pipe. The militiamen attacked even though the Delawares Lenape were currently at peace with the Americans. The soldiers killed two IndiansLenape, including Captain Pipe's brother. Most of the Delawares Lenape escaped death because they informed Hand of a village of nearby Munsee Indians nearbyVillage. Hand sent a small detachment to capture the MunseesMunsee. The soldiers found only four women and a young boy. The militiamen killed all of the captives with the exception of one woman. Hand disapproved of the murders, since they were of non-combatants. &nbsp;But but he was not present when the executions murders took place and could not stop them. His men returned to Fort Pitt. The campaign Hand's offensive against the natives these American Indians became known as the &quot;Squaw Campaign,&quot; because most of the American Indians that the Americans his men killed and captured were women.</p> <p>Throughout the campaign, Hand experienced tremendous difficulty in controlling the undisciplined militiamen. The expedition demonstrated the need for regular soldiers in the Ohio Countryto bolster Anglo-Americans' settlement of American Indian lands. Militiamen often lacked the training and the discipline necessary to defend American settlements on the frontier. The campaign also showed the urgent need for fortifications in the Ohio Country. Fort Pitt was too far away to assist the American military in campaigns in the Ohio Country.</p>
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