Difference between revisions of "Timeline of Ohio History"

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==Prehistoric Period: 13000 BC-1650 AD==
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==Prehistoric Period: 13000 B.C.-A.D. 1650==
  
*13000 BC-7000 BC: [[Paleoindian Period]] - Ohio's first human inhabitants
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*13,000-8,000 B.C: [[Paleoindian Period]] - Ohio's first human inhabitants.
 +
*8000-800 B.C: Ohio's [[Archaic Period]] - Most indigenous people live as hunters and gatherers.
 +
*800 B.C-A.D.1200: Ohio's [[Woodland Period]] - The region's indigenous populace increasingly relies on agriculture to sustain themselves.
 +
**800-100 B.C: [[Early Woodland Period]]
 +
***800 B.C-A.D. 100: The [[Adena Culture]] thrives in Ohio.
 +
**100 B.C-A.D. 500: [[Middle Woodland Period]]
 +
***A.D. 1-400: The [[Hopewell Culture]] builds large mound complexes in Ohio, including the Newark Earthworks.
 +
*A.D. 500-900: Late Woodland Period
 +
*A.D. 900-1650: [[Late Prehistoric Period]]
 +
**A.D. 1000-1650: Ohio's [[Fort Ancient Culture]] flourishes in central and southern Ohio. Other Late Prehistoric cultures in Ohio include the [[Sandusky Culture]] (northwestern), [[Whittlesey Culture]] (northeastern) and the [[Monongahela Culture]] (eastern).
  
*8000 BC-500 BC: Ohio's [[Archaic Period]] - Most native people lived as hunters and gatherers.
 
  
*800 BC-1200 AD: Ohio's [[Woodland Period]] - The region's native populace increasingly relied on agriculture to sustain themselves.
+
==Early Historic Period to Statehood: 1650-1803==
 +
Note: By the time the first European explorers arrived in North America in the late 1400s, the original indigenous people had inhabited what is today the State of Ohio for over 14,000 years. Starting with Ohio’s earliest ancient inhabitants, American Indian tribes and nations built and sustained rich, sophisticated, and productive societies and cultures. Ohio was not discovered by European explorers or settlers, as these lands were already claimed by American Indian groups as ancestral homelands, and many American Indians today consider Ohio their true home.
  
*800 BC-100 AD: The [[Adena Culture]] thrived in Ohio.
+
*1640: [[Beaver Wars]]–The Haudenosaunee, also called the Five Nations (later called the Six Nations in 1722), start a campaign called the Beaver Wars, during which they fight other American Indian groups, including those in Ohio Country, for their lands and territories in order to gain access to their fur–bearing animal game, especially beavers and deer.
  
*100 BC-400 AD: The [[Hopewell Culture]] built large mound complexes in Ohio, including the Newark Earthworks.
+
*Mid-17th century: Europeans arrive and begin to build permanent settlements.
  
*1000 AD-1650 AD: Ohio's [[Fort Ancient Culture]] flourished.
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*1670: [[Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle]], a French explorer and the first European in the Ohio Country, discovered the Ohio River for Europeans.
  
*1000 AD-1650 AD: Ohio's [[Late Prehistoric Period]].      
+
*1748: The [[Ohio Company]] forms in Virginia to settle the Ohio River Valley.
  
 
+
*ca. 1745–1765: Emigrant Tribes come to Ohio, requiring new alliances and “Wampum Diplomacy”. The Lenape (Delaware) emigrate during this period, negotiating with the Seneca, Wyandot, and Miami for new lands in Ohio.
 
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==Exploration to Statehood: 1650-1803==
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+
*1492: Christopher Columbus rediscovered the Americas for Europeans, beginning the Colonial Period in the New World.
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+
*1607: The Virginia Company established Jamestown, the first British community to survive in North America.
+
 
+
*1670: [[Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle]], a French explorer and the first European in the Ohio Country, discovered the Ohio River.
+
 
+
*1748: The [[Ohio Company]]  formed in Virginia to settle the Ohio River Valley.
+
  
 
*1754-1763: [[French and Indian War]]
 
*1754-1763: [[French and Indian War]]
  
**France ceded all rights to the [[Treaty of Paris of 1763]].
+
**1763: [[Treaty of Paris]]–ends the French and Indian War, and surrenders all French controlled lands to the British, including Ohio Country.
 +
**1763: [[Pontiac's Rebellion]]–In an attempt to prevent the British from allowing colonists to settle on Indian lands, Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawa Tribe, organizes an alliance with other tribes to drive the British from west of the Appalachian Mountains.
 +
**1763: [[Proclamation of 1763]]–After the British end Pontiac’s Rebellion, Britain issues the Proclamation of 1763, which forbids British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
  
*1768: [[Treaty of Fort Stanwix]] - [[Iroquois]] ceded all lands south and east of the [[Ohio River]] to the British.
+
*1768: [[Treaty of Fort Stanwix]]–Signed by British officials and Haudenosaunee leaders, the treaty relinquishes Haudenosaunee claims to lands south of the Ohio River. While the Iroquois agree to give up this land, other tribes living in Ohio do not, including the Lenape, Seneca–Cayuga, and Shawnee Tribes.
  
*1774: [[Lord Dunmore's War]]
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*1774: [[Lord Dunmore's War]]–Anglo–American settlers ignore the Proclamation of 1763, which led to violent confrontations with American Indian groups in Ohio Country. Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, sends one thousand Virginia militiamen into West Virginia to attack the Shawnee in retaliation for a series of attacks led by Chief Cornstalk (Shawnee) and Chief Logan (Seneca–Cayuga).
  
 
*1775-1783: The [[American Revolution]]
 
*1775-1783: The [[American Revolution]]
  
**1775: Hostilities began with battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachussetts.  
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**1775: Hostilities begin with Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts.  
  
**1776: [[Declaration of Independence]]. Thirteen colonies declared their independence from England and form United States of America.  
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**1776: [[Declaration of Independence]]–Thirteen colonies declare their independence from England and form the United States of America.  
  
**1781: Final major battle fought at Yorktown, Virginia
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**1781: Final major battle fought at Yorktown, Virginia.
  
*1782: [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]].  Pennsylvania militia killed Christian Native Americans near Tuscarawas River.
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*1782: [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]]–Pennsylvania militia murder 96 Christian Lenape men, women, and children at the Moravian missionary village in Gnadenhütten, Ohio.
  
*1782: Colonel [[William Crawford]] burned at the stake in retaliation for the [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]].
+
*1783: [[Treaty of Paris]]–officially ends the [[American Revolution]]. England recognizes American independence and cedes all lands in the Ohio Country.
  
*1783: [[Treaty of Paris]] officially ended the [[American Revolution]]. England recognized American independence and ceded all lands in the [[Ohio Country]].
+
*1785: [[Land Ordinance of 1785]]–Establishes methods for surveying and dividing land in the [[Ohio Country]].
  
*1785: [[Land Ordinance of 1785]] established methods for surveying and dividing land in the [[Ohio Country]].
+
*1786: [[Ohio Company of Associates]] forms in Massachusetts to sell land in what is now southeast Ohio.
  
*1786: [[Ohio Company of Associates]] formed in Massachusetts to sell land in what is now southeast Ohio.
+
*1787: [[Northwest Ordinance]]–establishes the Northwest Territory, which included modern-day Ohio, and the [[Confederation Congress]] appoints [[Arthur St. Clair]] as the first governor of the Northwest Territory.
  
*1787: [[Confederation Congress]] appointed [[St. Clair, Arthur | Arthur St. Clair]] as first governor of the Northwest Territory.
+
*1788: [[Marietta, Ohio | Marietta]], the [[Northwest Territory | Northwest Territory's]] and Ohio's first permanent New American settlement is founded.
  
*1787: [[United States Constitution]] drafted.
+
*1790-1794: [[Ohio Indian Wars]]–a series of violent skirmishes between the United States and American Indian tribes living in Ohio following the American Revolution.
  
*1787: Congress enacted the [[Northwest Ordinance]], establishing the [[Northwest Territory]], which included modern-day [[Ohio]].
+
**1790: [[Harmar's  Defeat]]–Indian militia, led by Myaamia (Miami) Chief [[Little Turtle]], defeats [[Josiah Harmar]], commander of the U.S. Army in the Northwest Territory after launching an attack on American Indian villages in western Ohio.
  
*1788: [[Marietta, Ohio | Marietta]], the [[Northwest Territory | Northwest Territory's]] and Ohio's first permanent white settlement, founded.
+
**1791: [[St. Clair's Defeat]]–Little Turtle leads Myaamia warriors in victory against American troops commanded by Arthur St. Clair.
  
*1790-1794: [[Ohio Indian Wars]]
+
**1794: [[Battle of  Fallen Timbers]]–On August 20, 1794, an American Indian Alliance and the United States Army, led by General [[Anthony Wayne]], come together at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in present-day Toledo, Ohio. This is the culmination of the Northwest Indian Wars as American Indian tribes attempt to thwart Anglo–American settlers from encroaching on their lands in the Ohio Country.
  
**1790 - [[Harmar's  Defeat]]
+
**1795:[[Treaty of Greeneville (1795)]]–After eight months of negotiations, American Indian tribal leaders and the United States sign the Treaty of Greeneville, which relinquishes all Indian Territory south and east of the treaty line, and white settlers cede all land north and west of the treaty line. The treaty ends the [[Ohio Indian Wars]].
  
**1791 - [[St. Clair's Defeat]]
+
*1800: [[Chillicothe]] becomes the capital of the [[Northwest Territory]].
  
**1794 - [[Battle of  Fallen Timbers]]
+
*1802: Enabling Act–sets the stage for Congress to admit Ohio to the Union.
  
*1795: [[Treaty of Greeneville (1795) | Treaty of Greeneville]] signed, essentially ending the [[Ohio Indian Wars]].
+
*1802: [[Ohio Constitutional Convention of 1802 | Constitutional Convention]] meets at Chillicothe to draft Ohio's first constitution.
  
*1800: [[Chillicothe]] became the capitol of the [[Northwest Territory]].
+
*1802: [[Worthington, Thomas | Thomas Worthington]] presents Ohio constitution to Congress for approval.
 
+
*1802: [[Enabling Act of 1802 | Enabling Act]] set the stage for Congress to admit [[Ohio]] to the Union.
+
 
+
*1802: [[Ohio Constitutional Convention of 1802 | Constitutional Convention]] met at [[Chillicothe]] to draft [[Ohio Constitution of 1803 | Ohio's first constitution]].
+
 
+
*1802: [[Worthington, Thomas | Thomas Worthington]] presented Ohio constitution to Congress for approval.
+
  
 
==Early Statehood: 1803-1846==
 
==Early Statehood: 1803-1846==
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*1803: [[Jefferson, Thomas | President Jefferson]] signed legislation making [[Ohio]] the seventeenth state of the Union.
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*1803: [[Jefferson, Thomas | President Jefferson]] signs legislation making [[Ohio]] the seventeenth state of the Union.
  
*1804:  [[Ohio General Assembly]] chartered [[Ohio University]].
+
*1804:  [[Ohio General Assembly]] charters [[Ohio University]].
  
*1812: City of [[Columbus, Ohio | Columbus]] founded and named as new state capitol.
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*1812: City of [[Columbus, Ohio | Columbus]] is founded and named the new state capitol.
  
*1812-1814: The [[War of 1812]]
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*1812-1814: The [[War of 1812]] – was fought between the United States and Britain, with American Indian tribes divided between the two sides. [[Tecumseh]], a Shawnee military leader, and his confederacy fought with the British to defend Indian lands.
  
**1813: British  failure at both [[Sieges of Fort Meigs]] prevented them from driving their  forces deeper into [[Ohio]].
+
**1813: [[Battle of Lake Erie]]–Under the command of [[Perry, Oliver H. | Oliver Hazard Perry]], Americans defeat the British fleet, cutting off British supply lines and forcing them to abandon Fort Detroit.
  
*1813: Under the command of [[Perry, Oliver H. | Oliver Hazard Perry]], the American fleet defeated the British fleet at the [[Battle of Lake Erie]], cutting off British supply lines and forcing them to abandon [[Fort Detroit]].
+
*1816: State government relocates to [[Columbus]].
  
*1815: [[Ohio University]] held first commencement.
+
*1825: Work on the [[National Road]] and the canal system in [[Ohio]] begins.
  
*1816: State government relocated to [[Columbus]].
+
*1833: [[Oberlin College]], the first coeducational college in the United States is founded.
  
*1825: Work on the [[National Road]] and the [[canal system]] in [[Ohio]] began.
+
*1833: The [[Ohio and Erie Canal]] is complete.
  
*1833: [[Oberlin College]], the first  coeducational college in the United States  founded.
+
*1835: Boundary dispute between Michigan and [[Ohio]] leads to the [[Toledo War]].
  
*1833: The [[Ohio and Erie Canal]] completed.
+
*1840: Ohioan [[Harrison, William H. | William Henry Harrison]] is elected the 9th President of the United States.
  
*1835: Boundary dispute between Michigan and [[Ohio]] led to the [[Toledo War]].
+
*1842: [[Treaty with the Wyandots (1842) (Upper Sandusky) | Treaty with the Wyandots (1842)]]–The [[Wyandot Indians]] relinquish all land claims in Ohio and Michigan, making them the last tribe to forcibly leave Ohio.
  
*1840: Ohioan [[Harrison, William H. | William Henry Harrison]] elected the 9th President of the United States.
+
*1845: The [[Miami and Erie Canal]] is complete.
  
*1842: [[Treaty with the Wyandots (1842) (Upper Sandusky) | Treaty with the Wyandots (1842)]]. The [[Wyandot Indians]], Ohio's last Native American tribe, agreed to relinquish all claims to land within the state.
+
*1846-1848: [[Mexican War]] –the United States and Mexico fight after the U.S. annexation of Texas. By signing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico recognizes U.S. sovereignty over Texas.
  
*1845: The [[Miami and Erie Canal]]  completed.
 
  
*1846-1848: [[Mexican War]]
+
*1850: The first [[Ohio State Fair]] is held in [[Cincinnati]].
  
*1850: The first [[Ohio State Fair]] held in [[Cincinnati]].
+
*1850: [[Ohio Constitutional Convention of 1850-1851 | Ohio's second Constitutional Convention]] is held in [[Chillicothe]].
  
*1850: [[Ohio Constitutional Convention of 1850-1851 | Ohio's second Constitutional Convention]]  held in [[Chillicothe]].
+
*1851: The [[Ohio Constitution of 1851]] is adopted.
  
*1851: The [[Ohio Constitution of 1851]]  adopted.
+
*1852: Publication of ''[[Uncle Tom's Cabin]]'', written in Ohio by [[Stowe, Harriet B. | Harriet Beecher Stowe]], increases tensions between the North and the South.
 
+
*1852: Publication of ''[[Uncle Tom's Cabin]]'', written by in Ohio by [[Stowe, Harriet B. | Harriet Beecher Stowe]], increased tensions between the North and the South.
+
  
 
==[[American Civil War]]: 1860-1865==
 
==[[American Civil War]]: 1860-1865==
  
*1860: [[Lincoln, Abraham | Abraham Lincoln]] elected president.
+
*1860: [[Lincoln, Abraham | Abraham Lincoln]] is elected president.
  
*1861: The [[Ohio Statehouse]] completed.
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*1861: The [[Ohio Statehouse]] is complete.
  
*1862: [[Lincoln, Abraham | President Lincoln]] issued the [[Emancipation Proclamation]].
+
*1862: Emancipation Proclamation–[[Lincoln, Abraham | President Lincoln]] signs an executive order freeing enslaved Africans in southern states.
  
*1863: Following a six-week siege, Confederate forces surrendered [[Vicksburg]] to Federal troops led by Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]].
+
*1863: Following a six-week siege, Confederate forces surrender [[Siege of Vicksburg | Vicksburg]] to Federal troops led by Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]].
  
*1863: [[Morgan's Raid]]. Confederate Brigadier General [[John Hunt Morgan]] led troops on a daring raid across southern Ohio.
+
*1863: [[Morgan's Raid]]–Confederate Brigadier General [[Morgan, John H. | John Hunt Morgan]] leads troops on a daring raid across southern Ohio.
  
*1863: [[Battle of Buffington Island]],the only [[Civil War]] battle fought on Ohio soil.
+
*1863: [[Battle of Buffington Island]]–the only [[American Civil War | Civil War]] battle fought on Ohio soil.
  
*1864: [[Lincoln, Abraham | President Lincoln]] promoted [[Ulysses S. Grant]] to supreme commander of all Union forces.
+
*1864: [[Lincoln, Abraham | President Lincoln]] promotes [[Ulysses S. Grant]] to supreme commander of all Union forces.
  
*1864: Union forces under the leadership of Ohioan [[William T. Sherman]] captured Atlanta.
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*1864: Union forces under the leadership of Ohioan [[Sherman, William T. | William T. Sherman]] captures Atlanta.
  
*1864: Sherman led his troops on his "[[March to the Sea]]" from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.
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*1864: Sherman leads his troops on his "[[Sherman's March to the Sea | March to the Sea]]" from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.
  
*1864-1865: [[Ulysses S. Grant]] led the [[Army of the Potomac]] in pursuit of Robert E. Lee's forces during the [[Wilderness Campaign]].
+
*1864-1865: [[Ulysses S. Grant]] leads the [[Army of the Potomac]] in pursuit of Robert E. Lee's forces during the [[Wilderness Campaign]].
  
*1865: Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to [[Ulysses S. Grant]] at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
+
*1865: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia to [[Ulysses S. Grant]] at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
  
*1865: John Wilkes Booth [[Abraham Lincoln's Assassination | assassinated President Lincoln]] at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.
 
  
 
==Industrialization and Urbanization: 1866-1900==
 
==Industrialization and Urbanization: 1866-1900==
  
*1868: Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]] elected to his first of two terms as the 18th President of the United States.
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*1868: Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]] is elected to his first of two terms as the 18th President of the United States.
  
*1869: The [[Cincinnati Redstockings]], the first professional baseball team, founded.
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*1869: The [[Cincinnati Red Stockings]], the first professional baseball team, is founded.
  
*1870: Originally known as the [[Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College]], [[The Ohio State University]] chartered by the [[Ohio General Assembly]].
+
*1870: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] charters [[The Ohio State University]], which was originally called the [[Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College]].
  
*1876: Ohioan [[Rutherford B. Hayes]] elected the 19th President of the United States.
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*1876: Ohioan [[Hayes, Rutherford B. | Rutherford B. Hayes]] is elected the 19th President of the United States.
  
*1876: The [[Ashtabula Train Disaster]] resulted in 83 deaths.
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*1876: The [[Ashtabula Train Disaster of 1876 | Ashtabula Train Disaster]]
  
*1879: Ohioan [[Thomas Edison]] invented the electric light bulb.
+
*1879: Ohioan [[Edison, Thomas A. | Thomas Edison]] invents the electric light bulb.
  
*1880: Ohioan [[James A. Garfield]] elected the 20th President of the United States.
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*1880: Ohioan [[Garfield, James A. | James A. Garfield]] is elected the 20th President of the United States.
  
*1881: Charles Guiteau shot [[President Garfield]], who died three months later, in Washington, D.C.
+
*1881: Charles Guiteau shoots [[Garfield, James A. | President Garfield]], who dies three months later, in Washington D.C.
  
*1884: [[Cincinnati Courthouse Riot]] brought destruction and death to Cincinnati.
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*1884: [[Cincinnati Courthouse Riot]] brings destruction and death to Cincinnati.
 
+
*1888: Ohioan [[Benjamin Harrison]]  elected the 23rd President of the United States.
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+
*1894: The first gasoline-powered [[automobile]] in the U.S.  invented.
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+
*1896: Ohioan [[William McKinley]]  elected to his first of two terms as the 25th President of the United States.    
+
  
 +
*1888: Ohioan [[Harrison, Benjamin | Benjamin Harrison]] is elected the 23rd President of the United States.
  
 +
*1894: Invention of the first gasoline-powered [[Automobiles|automobile]] in the U.S.
  
 +
*1896: Ohioan [[McKinley Jr., William | William McKinley]] is elected to his first of two terms as the 25th President of the United States.
  
 
==The Progressive Era: 1901-1928==
 
==The Progressive Era: 1901-1928==
  
*1901: Leon Czolgosz assassinated [[President McKinley]] in Buffalo, New York.  
+
*1901: Leon Czolgosz assassinates [[McKinley Jr., William | President McKinley]] in Buffalo, New York.  
  
*1902: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] officially adopted [[Ohio's state flag]].  
+
*1902: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] officially adopts [[Ohio's State Flag (1901) | Ohio's state flag]].  
  
*1903: Ohioans [[Orville]] and [[Wilbur]] Wright complete the first successful flight of a powered airplane.
+
*1903: Ohioans [[Wright, Orville | Orville]] and [[Wright, Wilbur | Wilbur]] Wright complete the first successful flight of a powered airplane.
  
*1908: Ohioan [[William H. Taft]] elected the 27th President of the United States.
+
*1908: Ohioan [[Taft, William H. | William H. Taft]] is elected the 27th President of the United States.
  
*1908: The [[Collinwood School Fire]], near Cleveland, killed 173 pupils, two teachers, and one firefighter.
+
*1908: The [[Collinwood School Fire]] near Cleveland kills 173 pupils, two teachers, and one firefighter.
  
*1913: The [[Flood of 1913]] caused the death of at least 428 Ohioans and brought destruction across the state.
+
*1913: [[1913 Ohio Statewide Flood | Flood of 1913]]at least 428 Ohioans die and properties across Ohio are destroyed.
  
 
*1914-1918: [[World War I]]
 
*1914-1918: [[World War I]]
  
**1917: [[Camp  Sherman]], near [[Chillicothe]],  contructed to train [[World War I]] army troops.  
+
**1917: [[Camp  Sherman]] is constructed in Ross County to train World War I soldiers.  
 
+
**1918: Approximately 1,200 troops die at [[Camp  Sherman]] during the [[Influenza Epidemic of 1918]].
**1918: Aproximately 1,200 troops died at [[Camp  Sherman]] during the [[Influenza Epidemic of 1918]].
+
**1918: Colonel Charles Young rides on horseback from Wilberforce, Ohio, to Washington D.C. after the U.S. denies his request to command U.S. troops in Europe.
 
+
*1920: Ohioan [[Warren G. Harding]]  elected the 29th President of the United States.
+
 
+
*1925: The dirigible ''[[Shenandoah ]]''[[crashed]] near Ava, Ohio, killing 14 people.  
+
 
+
  
 +
*1920: Ohioan [[Harding, Warren G. | Warren G. Harding]] is elected the 29th President of the United States.
  
 +
*1925: The dirigible ''[[USS Shenandoah | Shenandoah ]]''[[Crash of the USS Shenandoah | crashes]] near Ava, Ohio, killing 14 people.
  
 
==The [[Great Depression]] and [[World War II]]: 1929-1945==
 
==The [[Great Depression]] and [[World War II]]: 1929-1945==
  
*1929-1941: The [[Great       Depression]]
+
*1929-1941: [[Great Depression]]
 
+
*1930: The [[Ohio Penitentiary Fire]] killed 322 inmates.
+
 
+
*1935: [[Ohio's first sales tax]]  instituted.
+
 
+
*1937: The [[Ohio River Flood of 1937]] brought devastation to southern Ohio.
+
 
+
*1944: The [[East Ohio Gas Company Explosion]] in Cleveland  killed 131 people.
+
  
*1941-1945: The [[World War II]] entangled the United States and Ohio.
+
*1930: [[Ohio Penitentiary Fire]] kills 322 inmates.
  
*1949: The [[General Assembly]] created the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.   
+
*1937: [[Ohio River Flood of 1937]]
  
 +
*1944: [[East Ohio Gas Company Explosion]]–kills 131 people in Cleveland.
  
 +
*1941-1945: The [[World War II]] entangles the United States and Ohio.
  
 +
*1949: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] creates the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
  
 
==The [[Cold War]] and the [[Civil Rights Movement]]: 1946-1975==
 
==The [[Cold War]] and the [[Civil Rights Movement]]: 1946-1975==
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*1950-1953: The [[Korean War]]
 
*1950-1953: The [[Korean War]]
  
*1953: Correcting an oversight, Congress passed a resolution officially recognizing [[Ohio statehood]] and declaring Ohio's date of entry into the Union as March 1, 1803.
+
*1953: Correcting an oversight, Congress passes a resolution officially recognizing [[Ohio Statehood]] and declaring Ohio's date of entry into the Union as March 1, 1803.
  
*1955: The [[Ohio Turnpike]] completed.
+
*1958: Completion of the [[Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System | St. Lawrence Seaway]] connects Ohio cities on [[Lake Erie]] to international trade opportunities.  
  
*1958: Completion of the [[St. Lawrence Seaway]] connected Ohio cities on [[Lake Erie]] to international trade opportunities.  
+
*1959: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] creates the [[Ohio Civil Rights Commission]].
  
*1959: The [[General Assembly]] created the [[Ohio Civil Rights Commission]].
+
*1962: Ohioan [[Glenn Jr., John H. | John Glenn]] becomes the first person from the United States to orbit the earth.
  
*1962: Ohioan [[John Glenn]] became the first American to orbit the earth.
+
*1963: [[Walker, William O. | William O. Walker]] becomes Ohio's first African-American cabinet member.
  
*1963: [[William O. Walker]] became Ohio's first African-American cabinet member.
+
*1963: The [[Pro Football Hall of Fame]] opens in [[Canton, Ohio]].
 
+
*1963: The [[Professional Football Hall of Fame]] opened in [[Canton]].
+
  
 
*1964-1974: [[Vietnam War]]
 
*1964-1974: [[Vietnam War]]
  
*1967: [[Carl Stokes]] became the first [[African-American]] mayor of a major city ([[Cleveland]]).
+
*1967: [[Stokes, Carl B. | Carl Stokes]] becomes the first [[African Americans | African American]] mayor of a major city ([[Cleveland, Ohio | Cleveland]]).
  
*1969: Ohioan [[Neil Armstrong]] became the first person to walk on the moon.
+
*1969: Ohioan [[Armstrong, Neil A. | Neil Armstrong]] becomes the first person to walk on the moon.
  
*1970: [[Kent State Riot]] - Four students  killed by [[Ohio National Guard]] during anti-war protests.
+
*1970: [[Kent State Shootings]]–The [[Ohio National Guard]] kills four unarmed students at Kent State University during anti–war protests.
 
+
*1972: The [[General Assembly]] enacted the [[Ohio Income Tax]].
+
 
+
*1973: Ohio voters approved the [[Ohio Lottery]].
+
 
+
*1974: The deadly [[Xenia Tornado]] killed 33 people.   
+
  
 +
*1972: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] enacts the [[Ohio Income Tax]].
  
 +
*1973: Ohio voters approve the [[Ohio Lottery]].
  
 +
*1974: The deadly [[Xenia Tornado of 1974 | Xenia Tornado]] kills 33 people.
  
 
==Modern Ohio==
 
==Modern Ohio==
  
*1978: The [[1978 Ohio Statewide Blizzard | Blizzard of 1978]], the worst winter storm in Ohio's history.
+
*1978: [[1978 Ohio Statewide Blizzard | Blizzard of 1978]]–The worst winter storm in Ohio's history.  
 
+
*1979: Public schools in [[Columbus]], [[Dayton]] and [[Cleveland]] began [[busing]] pupils to eliminate segregation.
+
  
*1986: Astronaut [[Judith Resnik]], of [[Akron]], died in the ''Challenger'' space shuttle explosion.  
+
*1979: Public schools in [[Columbus]], [[Dayton]] and [[Cleveland, Ohio | Cleveland]] begin [[busing]] pupils to eliminate segregation.
  
*1991: In their ruling in ''[[DeRolph v. State of Ohio]]'', the [[Ohio Supreme Court]] declared Ohio's school funding program unconstitutional.  
+
*1986: Astronaut [[Resnik, Judith | Judith Resnik]], of [[Akron, Ohio | Akron]], dies in the ''Challenger'' space shuttle explosion.  
  
*1993: The [[Lucasville Prison Riot]] resulted in the deaths of nine prisoners and one guard.  
+
*1993: The [[Lucasville Prison Riot]] results in the deaths of nine prisoners and one guard.  
  
*1995: The [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]] opened in [[Cleveland]].  
+
*1995: The [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum]] opens in [[Cleveland, Ohio | Cleveland]].  
  
*1995: International negotiations at [[Wright-Patterson Air Force Base]] near [[Dayton]] led to the Bosnian Peace Agreement.
+
*1995: International negotiations at [[Wright-Patterson Air Force Base]] near [[Dayton]] lead to the Bosnian Peace Agreement.
  
*1998: Astronaut [[John Glenn]] became the oldest man to travel into space.
+
*1998: At the age of 77, astronaut [[Glenn Jr., John H. | John Glenn]] becomes the oldest man to travel into space.
  
*2001: Terrorist attacks on [[September 11]] in New York City, NY and Washington, D.C., led to a flurry of anti-terrorist activities in [[Ohio]] and throughout the nation.
+
*2001: Terrorist attacks on [[11-Sep-01 | September 11]] in New York City, NY and Washington D.C., lead to a flurry of anti-terrorist activities in [[Ohio]] and throughout the nation.
  
*2006: Ohio voters passed a [[statewide smoking ban]] in public places.
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*2006: Ohio voters pass [[Ohio's Statewide Smoking Ban]] in public places.

Latest revision as of 12:00, 14 June 2021

Prehistoric Period: 13000 B.C.-A.D. 1650


Early Historic Period to Statehood: 1650-1803

Note: By the time the first European explorers arrived in North America in the late 1400s, the original indigenous people had inhabited what is today the State of Ohio for over 14,000 years. Starting with Ohio’s earliest ancient inhabitants, American Indian tribes and nations built and sustained rich, sophisticated, and productive societies and cultures. Ohio was not discovered by European explorers or settlers, as these lands were already claimed by American Indian groups as ancestral homelands, and many American Indians today consider Ohio their true home.

  • 1640: Beaver Wars–The Haudenosaunee, also called the Five Nations (later called the Six Nations in 1722), start a campaign called the Beaver Wars, during which they fight other American Indian groups, including those in Ohio Country, for their lands and territories in order to gain access to their fur–bearing animal game, especially beavers and deer.
  • Mid-17th century: Europeans arrive and begin to build permanent settlements.
  • 1748: The Ohio Company forms in Virginia to settle the Ohio River Valley.
  • ca. 1745–1765: Emigrant Tribes come to Ohio, requiring new alliances and “Wampum Diplomacy”. The Lenape (Delaware) emigrate during this period, negotiating with the Seneca, Wyandot, and Miami for new lands in Ohio.
    • 1763: Treaty of Paris–ends the French and Indian War, and surrenders all French controlled lands to the British, including Ohio Country.
    • 1763: Pontiac's Rebellion–In an attempt to prevent the British from allowing colonists to settle on Indian lands, Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawa Tribe, organizes an alliance with other tribes to drive the British from west of the Appalachian Mountains.
    • 1763: Proclamation of 1763–After the British end Pontiac’s Rebellion, Britain issues the Proclamation of 1763, which forbids British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
  • 1768: Treaty of Fort Stanwix–Signed by British officials and Haudenosaunee leaders, the treaty relinquishes Haudenosaunee claims to lands south of the Ohio River. While the Iroquois agree to give up this land, other tribes living in Ohio do not, including the Lenape, Seneca–Cayuga, and Shawnee Tribes.
  • 1774: Lord Dunmore's War–Anglo–American settlers ignore the Proclamation of 1763, which led to violent confrontations with American Indian groups in Ohio Country. Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, sends one thousand Virginia militiamen into West Virginia to attack the Shawnee in retaliation for a series of attacks led by Chief Cornstalk (Shawnee) and Chief Logan (Seneca–Cayuga).
    • 1775: Hostilities begin with Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts.
    • 1781: Final major battle fought at Yorktown, Virginia.
  • 1782: Gnadenhutten Massacre–Pennsylvania militia murder 96 Christian Lenape men, women, and children at the Moravian missionary village in Gnadenhütten, Ohio.
  • 1790-1794: Ohio Indian Wars–a series of violent skirmishes between the United States and American Indian tribes living in Ohio following the American Revolution.
    • 1790: Harmar's Defeat–Indian militia, led by Myaamia (Miami) Chief Little Turtle, defeats Josiah Harmar, commander of the U.S. Army in the Northwest Territory after launching an attack on American Indian villages in western Ohio.
    • 1791: St. Clair's Defeat–Little Turtle leads Myaamia warriors in victory against American troops commanded by Arthur St. Clair.
    • 1794: Battle of Fallen Timbers–On August 20, 1794, an American Indian Alliance and the United States Army, led by General Anthony Wayne, come together at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in present-day Toledo, Ohio. This is the culmination of the Northwest Indian Wars as American Indian tribes attempt to thwart Anglo–American settlers from encroaching on their lands in the Ohio Country.
    • 1795:Treaty of Greeneville (1795)–After eight months of negotiations, American Indian tribal leaders and the United States sign the Treaty of Greeneville, which relinquishes all Indian Territory south and east of the treaty line, and white settlers cede all land north and west of the treaty line. The treaty ends the Ohio Indian Wars.
  • 1802: Enabling Act–sets the stage for Congress to admit Ohio to the Union.

Early Statehood: 1803-1846

  • 1812: City of Columbus is founded and named the new state capitol.
  • 1812-1814: The War of 1812 – was fought between the United States and Britain, with American Indian tribes divided between the two sides. Tecumseh, a Shawnee military leader, and his confederacy fought with the British to defend Indian lands.
  • 1816: State government relocates to Columbus.
  • 1833: Oberlin College, the first coeducational college in the United States is founded.
  • 1835: Boundary dispute between Michigan and Ohio leads to the Toledo War.
  • 1846-1848: Mexican War –the United States and Mexico fight after the U.S. annexation of Texas. By signing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico recognizes U.S. sovereignty over Texas.


American Civil War: 1860-1865

  • 1862: Emancipation Proclamation– President Lincoln signs an executive order freeing enslaved Africans in southern states.
  • 1864: Sherman leads his troops on his " March to the Sea" from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.
  • 1865: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.


Industrialization and Urbanization: 1866-1900

  • 1868: Ohioan Ulysses S. Grant is elected to his first of two terms as the 18th President of the United States.
  • 1881: Charles Guiteau shoots President Garfield, who dies three months later, in Washington D.C.
  • 1894: Invention of the first gasoline-powered automobile in the U.S.
  • 1896: Ohioan William McKinley is elected to his first of two terms as the 25th President of the United States.

The Progressive Era: 1901-1928

  • 1903: Ohioans Orville and Wilbur Wright complete the first successful flight of a powered airplane.
  • 1908: Ohioan William H. Taft is elected the 27th President of the United States.
  • 1913: Flood of 1913– at least 428 Ohioans die and properties across Ohio are destroyed.
    • 1917: Camp Sherman is constructed in Ross County to train World War I soldiers.
    • 1918: Approximately 1,200 troops die at Camp Sherman during the Influenza Epidemic of 1918.
    • 1918: Colonel Charles Young rides on horseback from Wilberforce, Ohio, to Washington D.C. after the U.S. denies his request to command U.S. troops in Europe.

The Great Depression and World War II: 1929-1945

  • 1941-1945: The World War II entangles the United States and Ohio.

The Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement: 1946-1975

  • 1953: Correcting an oversight, Congress passes a resolution officially recognizing Ohio Statehood and declaring Ohio's date of entry into the Union as March 1, 1803.
  • 1962: Ohioan John Glenn becomes the first person from the United States to orbit the earth.

Modern Ohio

  • 1998: At the age of 77, astronaut John Glenn becomes the oldest man to travel into space.
  • 2001: Terrorist attacks on September 11 in New York City, NY and Washington D.C., lead to a flurry of anti-terrorist activities in Ohio and throughout the nation.