Union Party

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The Union Party was formed in Ohio during the American Civil War. It consisted of many members of the Republican Party and of pro-war members of the Democratic Party. These two groups put aside their political differences to unite together behind the North's war effort. During the Civil War, a majority of Ohioans supported the war, but there was a sizable number of people opposed to the conflict.

Pro-war Democrats united with Ohio's Republicans in support of the war. Republicans welcomed the support of these Democrats and hoped to unite Union citizens together behind the war effort. Of the three Ohio governors elected during and immediately after the war, all were members of the Union Party. David Tod and John Brough were both pre-war Democrats. Republican members of the Union Party endorsed these two men to reach out to Democrats who were unhappy with the Democratic Party. Jacob Cox, elected after the war's conclusion, was a staunch supporter of the Republican Party's principles but ran under the Union Party's banner for political reasons.

By 1868, the Union Party had ceased to exist as the Republican Party and the Democratic Party were realigned. The Union Party had become divided over the details of Reconstruction and whether rights should be granted to African Americans.

See Also


  1. Baker, Jean H. Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of Northern Democrats in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.  
  2. Bogue, Allan G. The Earnest Men: Republicans of the Civil War Senate. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981.  
  3. Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio's War: The Civil War in Documents. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.  
  4. Donald, David Herbert. The Politics of Reconstruction, 1863-1867. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.  
  5. Engs, Robert F., and Randall M. Miller, eds. The Birth of the Grand Old Party: the Republicans' First Generation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.  
  6. Foner, Eric. A Short History of Reconstruction. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1990.
  7. Goldman, Ralph Morris. Search for Consensus: The Story of the Democratic Party. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1979.  
  8. Mantell, Martin E. Johnson, Grant, and the Politics of Reconstruction. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1973.  
  9. Morrison, Chaplain W. Democratic Politics and Sectionalism: The Wilmot Proviso Controversy. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1967.  
  10. Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Generals and Soldiers. Cincinnati, OH: Clarke, 1895.
  11. Richardson, Heather Cox. The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865-1901. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.  
  12. Roseboom, Eugene H. The Civil War Era: 1850-1873. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944.  
  13. Simpson, Brooks D. Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War and Reconstruction, 1861-1868. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1991.  
  14. Simpson, Brooks D. The Reconstruction Presidents. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.  
  15. Weber, Jennifer L. Copperheads: The Rise and Fall of Lincoln's Opponents in the North. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2006.