Wayne's Indian Campaign of 1794
In 1792, President George Washington appointed Anthony Wayne as the commander of the United States Army of the Northwest. The major purpose of this army was to defend American settlers from Indian attack. Generals Josiah Harmar and Arthur St. Clair had both suffered defeats at the hands of the Native Americans in the previous few years, and Washington hoped that Wayne would prove more successful.
To help defend the frontier, Wayne ordered the construction of several forts, including Fort Recovery, Fort Defiance, and Fort Greene Ville. As the build-up of American forces in the Northwest Territory continued, the British constructed Fort Miamis on the Maumee River. The fort was built to both protect the way to Detroit and provide security to the Britain's Native American allies.
In 1794, Wayne moved against the Indians. Chief Blue Jacket of the Shawnee Indians led the natives. On August 20, 1794, the two forces met at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, so named because the Indians used trees blown down by a tornado for cover. Wayne's men quickly drove the Indians from the battlefield. The Americans had thirty-three men killed and roughly one hundred wounded, while the Indians lost approximately twice that number. Blue Jacket's followers retreated to Fort Miamis, hoping that the British would provide them with protection and assistance against Wayne's army. The British refused. Wayne followed the natives to the fort. Upon his arrival, Wayne ordered the British to evacuate the Northwest Territory. The British commander refused, and Wayne decided to withdraw to Fort Greene Ville.
For the next year, Wayne stayed at Fort Greene Ville, negotiating a treaty with the Indians. The natives realized that they were at a serious disadvantage with the Americans, especially because of Great Britain's refusal to support the Indians. On August 3, 1795, the Treaty of Greeneville was signed. Representatives from the Miami Indians, the Wyandot Indians, the Shawnee Indians, the Delaware Indians, and several other tribes agreed to move to the northwestern corner of what is present-day Ohio. Not all Indians agreed with the treaty, and bloodshed continued to dominate the region for the next twenty years as Americans and Indians struggled for control.