From Ohio History Central

While small projectile points have been found at some Archaic sites, it appears that the native peoples of the Ohio country first began to use the bow and arrow during the Late Woodland period at around AD 500. Arrowheads tend to be much smaller and thinner than spear points. The earliest arrowheads may have been the Jack's Reef and Raccoon Notched types associated with the early Late Woodland Intrusive Mound Culture. Large triangular Levanna points and smaller triangular Madison points are often found with the Jack's Reef notched points at Late Woodland sites. These triangular points (and Fort Ancient points) were also used during the Late Prehistoric period. In New York,  Levanna and Madison points were found at Early Iroquois sites and were classified as arrowheads since the Iroquois did not use the atlatl, only the bow. Possible arrow shafts were among the well-preserved dry organic remains recovered in Late Woodland levels during 1877 excavations at Ash Cave in the Hocking Hills.

See Also


  1. Justice, Noel and Suzanne K. Kudlaty. Field Guide to Projectile Points of the Midwest, Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 2001.
  2. Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005. 
  3. Smith, Bruce, Chenopodium berlandieri ssp. Jonesianum: Evidence for a Hopewellian Domesticate from Ash Cave, Ohio. Southeastern Archaeology 4(2):107-133, 1985.