Camp Anderson was located at Lancaster, Ohio, at the Fairfield County Fairgrounds during the American Civil War. Governor William Dennison ordered the establishment of the post as a training camp for Ohio volunteers. In April 1861, following President Abraham Lincoln's call for seventy-five thousand volunteers to end the South's rebellion, Governor Dennison encouraged Ohio communities to form and send militia units to the state capital at Columbus. The governor ordered the formation of additional camps, including Camp Anderson, to speed the processing and training of Ohio's military forces. At these camps, military authorities also reorganized these individual companies into larger military units. Camp Anderson was probably named after Major Robert Anderson, who was the commander of Fort Sumter when it was attacked by the Confederates.
While the state militia system had deteriorated throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, numerous communities had maintained units. These units existed primarily to march in parades and to provide young men with something to do in their spare time. These militia units provided Ohioans with a basic force to provide Ohio with protection from a Confederate invasion. The soldiers at Camp Anderson usually remained at the camp for only a short time. After receiving some training, military officials would send the men to war.
- Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio's War: The Civil War in Documents. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.
- Leeke, Richard. A Hundred Days to
<city> <place>Richmond</place></city>: <state> <place>Ohio</place></state>'s "Hundred Days" Men in the Civil War. <city> <place>Bloomington</place></city>: <place> <placename>Indiana</placename> <placetype>University</placetype></place> Press, 1999.
- Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Generals and Soldiers. Cincinnati, OH: Clarke, 1895.
- Roseboom, Eugene H. The Civil War Era: 1850-1873. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944.