Hip Sing Tong
The Hip Sing Tong is an association that primarily promotes Chinese business development in Cleveland, Ohio.
The Hip Sing Tong was established in Cleveland, Ohio in 1911. Its headquarters were located in the city's Chinatown. The Hip Sing Tong sought to promote Chinese business in Cleveland. It also preserved Chinese culture by sponsoring various festivals. The organization also served as a banking institution and a mutual benefit society for Cleveland's Chinese community.
During the Hip Sing Tong's first two decades of existence, the organization was involved in a series of violent confrontations known as the Tong Wars. The Hip Sing Tong sought to control Chinese business development in Cleveland, and it sought to drive another Chinese business association, the On Leong Tong, from the city. From the early 1910s to the late 1920s, these two organizations engaged in tactics similar to those of the Mob. After several deaths, the two groups eventually put aside their differences and worked together to promote Chinese businesses and the Chinese culture. One of the earliest projects that the Hip Sing Tong and the On Leong Tong engaged in was the removal of 120 deceased Chinese Americans to China for burial with their ancestors.
- Van Tassel, David D., and John J. Grabowski, eds. The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.