The Kaskaskia lived mainly in Illinois and eastern Missouri when Europeans began to settle in North America. They were closely related to the Miami natives, and were one of many groups making up the Illiniwek or Illinois Confederation. During the Beaver Wars (1640–1700), the Kaskaskias fought against the Iroquois natives. After the Iroquois threat ended, some Kaskaskia natives moved into the Ohio Country to live among the Miami natives. During the French and Indian War, the Kaskaskias allied themselves with the French. During the American Revolution, they supported the British against the Americans. George Rogers Clark led an American army against the Kaskaskias during the war. Although the Kaskaskia natives did not live in great numbers in Ohio, they, like other tribes with claims to Ohio land, were forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville (1795) and relinquished their claims to land in the majority of present-day Ohio. In 1832, with escalating federal removal policies in place, the Kaskaskia were forced move west of the Mississippi River, and to leave their traditional homeland in Illinois. Descendants of the Kaskaskia make up the federally-recognized tribe of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma.
- Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.