From Ohio History Central
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| caption = Photograph of a portrait of Charles Anderson. He became governor in 1865 after the death of John Brough and served until 1866.
<p>Anderson was born near Louisville, Kentucky, on June 1, 1814. His father, Colonel Richard Clough Anderson, had fought in the American Revolution, serving as aide-de-camp to the Marquis de Lafayette. After the war ended, Colonel Anderson became a surveyor for the Virginia Military District and was based in Louisville. It was here that Charles Anderson was born at the family's home known as "Soldier's Retreat."</p>
<p>In 1829, Anderson came to Oxford, Ohio, to attend Miami University. He graduated in 1833 and returned to Louisville, where he began to study law in the office of Pirtle and Anderson. After gaining admittance to the bar in 1835, Anderson decided to move to Dayton, Ohio, to set up his own law practice. Within a short time, he met Eliza J. Brown, the daughter of a Dayton merchant. They were married in September 1835. In addition to his legal work, Anderson also was a farmer. He made a name for himself in the community and was elected to a term as Montgomery County's prosecuting attorney.</p>
<p>Anderson first became involved in state politics in 1844, when he was elected to the Ohio Senate as a Whig. Anderson advocated granting African Americans civil rights and argued, unsuccessfully, that Ohio should repeal its "Black Laws". In addition, he was involved in the construction of the new statehouse. He only served one term, traveling to Europe for several months after his service was over.</p>