From Ohio History Central
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<p>This complicated group of monumental earthworks caused nineteenth century archaeologists Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis to say that it was "impossible to give anything like a comprehensible description of them." During the last decades of the twentieth century, scientists asserted that the Octagon seems to incorporate the cycle for the Moon's rising and setting in its walls. Modern archaeologists refer to Newark and similar sites as "ceremonial centers," but they do not know the full range of activities of the Hopewell people at such places.</p>
<p>Although much of the Newark Earthworks were destroyed by the growth of the city of Newark, concerned citizens succeeded in preserving two major parts of the site. The Great Circle became the county fair grounds. The Octagon Earthworks became the summer campground of the Ohio National Guard and later, the golf course of Mound Builders Country Club. Wright Earthworks preserves a small corner of the square enclosure.</p>
<p>In 2005, fourth grade students at William E. Miller Elementary School in Newark, Ohio, asked the State of Ohio to recognize the Newark Earthworks as Ohio's prehistoric monument. With the assistance of State Senator Jay Hottinger, the students testified before the Ohio Senate and the Ohio House of Representatives. Members of these two bodies accepted the students' proposal. On June 7, 2006, Governor Bob Taft formally declared the Newark Earthworks to be Ohio's prehistoric monument. The designation of the Newark Earthworks as Ohio's state prehistoric monument honors the ancient American
Indian builders of this site. It also honors the early residents of Newark who found ways to include the earthworks in their own new settlement without destroying them completely.</p>
<p>The Newark Earthworks are also recognized as a National Historic Landmark.</p>
#Carr, Christopher, and D. Troy Case, eds. <em>Gathering Hopewell: Society, Ritual, and Ritual Interaction</em>. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2005.
#Dancey, William S., and Paul J. Pacheco. <em>Ohio Hopewell Community Organization</em>. Kent State University Press, 1997.
#Pangea Productions. <em>Searching for the Great Hopewell Road</em>. N.p.: Pangea Productions, 1998.
#<em>Earthworks Virtual Explorations of Ancient Newark, Ohio</em>. The Center for the Electronic Reconstruction of Historical and Archaeological Sites. Cincinnati, OH: Center for the Electronic Reconstruction of Historical and Archaeological Sites, 2005.