From Ohio History Central
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| caption = Human Hand Effigy, Hopewell Culture, Hopewell Mound Group, Ross Co., A 283/000294
<p>Around 200 B.C, the beginning of the Middle Woodland period, a new Native American culture developed that spread throughout the Midwest (then known as the Eastern Woodland) identified as Hopewell. There was not a specific tribe that can accredited with the establishment of the Hopewell principles, instead Hopewell is more of a culture and way of life that was experienced throughout multiple areas spanning from places including: Nebraska to Mississippi, Indiana to Minnesota, Virginia to the epicenter area of Ohio. Specifically in Ohio the culture was heavily influential in the Southeastern region that consists of the Ohio Valley, the Scioto Valley, and the Miami Valley. Typically Hopewell tribes resided near major waterways and abundantly resourced rivers to support their agricultural lifestyle and expand the complex trading system they were cultivating.</p>
<p>A Hopewell cultured settlement was generally smaller in size and temporary, instead residing in one area for a certain amount of time before relocating to discover fresher resources and advance trading routes. These miniscule hamlets consisted of only a few rectangular homes with thatched roofs and daub walls. As preceding tribes did before the Hopewell communities gained sustenance and supplies through techniques including: hunting and gathering and farming. One definitive practice that represents the Hopewell culture was the focus on an agricultural system. These societies emphasized planting indigenous seeds that were abundant in the fertile regions where the villages resided in. Some of the major plants they cultivated included: sunflower, squash, and maygrass. The switch from a concentration on hunting to that of agriculture represented the official birth of mass farming within the Native American network.</p>
#Carr, Christopher, and D. Troy Case, eds. <em>Gathering Hopewell: Society, Ritual, and Ritual Interaction</em>. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2005.
#Dancey, William S., and Paul J. Pacheco. <em>Ohio Hopewell Community Organization</em>. Kent State University Press, 1997.
#<em>Earthworks Virtual Explorations of Ancient Newark, Ohio</em>. The Center for the Electronic Reconstruction of Historical and Archaeological Sites. Cincinnati, OH: Center for the Electronic Reconstruction of Historical and Archaeological Sites, 2005.
#Woodward, Susan L., and Jerry N. McDonald. <em>Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley: A Guide to Mounds and Earthworks of the Adena, Hopewell, Cole, and Fort Ancient People</em>. Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 2002.<strong> </strong>