From Ohio History Central
Text replacement - "Ohio Historical Society" to "Ohio History Connection"
| image = [[File:Fort Ancient Walls.jpg]]
| caption = Postcard showing the great east walls of Fort Ancient, ca. 1920-1950. Fort Ancient, built 2,000 years ago by prehistoric Native Americans, is an earthworks with 18,000 feet of earthen walls enclosing 100 acres. It is located in Warren County, Ohio and maintained as a state memorial by the Ohio
<p>The Hopewell culture (100 B.C. to 500 A. D.) of prehistoric Native American people constructed the earthworks. Later native residents built a village and a cemetery within the walls of the already ancient South Fort. Archaeologists mistakenly assumed that these villagers had built the earthen walls. It was called the Fort Ancient culture (1000 A.D. to 1650 A.D.) after the name of the site. This mistake has caused confusion for later students of Ohio archaeology.</p>
<p>Recent excavations at Fort Ancient have discovered the remains of Hopewell culture houses and ceremonial features both inside and outside of the enclosure walls. It is not known whether the houses located inside the enclosure were occupied before or after the enclosure was built. It also has yet to be determined whether the houses were the dwellings of more or less full time residents, or the temporary shelters of visitors.</p>
<p>The Fort Ancient Earthworks is an Ohio
Historical Society site open to visitation. It is located seven miles southeast of Lebanon, in Warren County. In addition to the earthworks, the site features a museum with interpretive exhibits about Ohio's ancient past. The Fort Ancient Earthworks site also is a National Historic Landmark.</p>
*[[http://www.ohiohistory.org/places/ftancien/ Fort Ancient]]
*[[http://www.ohiohistory.org/places/ftancien/fa-01.html New Discoveries at Fort Ancient]]
#Blosser, Jack, and Robert C. Glotzhober. <em>Fort Ancient: Citadel, Cemetery, Cathedral or Calendar?</em>. Columbus: Ohio
Historical Society, 1995.
#Byers, A. Martin. <em>The Ohio Hopewell Episode: Paradigm Lost and Paradigm Gained</em>. Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 2004.
#Carr, Christopher, and D. Troy Case, eds. <em>Gathering Hopewell: Society, Ritual, and Ritual Interaction</em>. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2005.
#Griffin, James Bennett. <em>The Fort Ancient Aspect: Its Cultural and Chronological Position in Mississippi Valley Archaeology</em>. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1966.
#Connolly, Robert P. and Bradley T. Lepper, eds. <em>The Fort Ancient Earthworks: Prehistoric Lifeways of the Hopewell Culture in Southwestern Ohio</em>. Ohio
Historical Society. Columbus, OH, 2004.
#CERHAS. <em>EarthWorks, Virtual Explorations of the Ancient Ohio Valley</em>. The Center for the Electronic Reconstruction of Historical and Archaeological Sites (CERHAS). Cincinnati, OH, 2006.
#Case, D. Troy and Christopher Carr, eds. <em>The Scioto Hopewell and their Neighbors: Bioarchaeological Documentation and Cultural Understanding</em>. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2008.